LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE are points on lines that graph the Earth and enable cartographers and others, by assigning dimensions to the lines, to fix the area of any type of area. Latitude lines run eastern and west and also are also dubbed parallels; longitude lines run north and also southern and also are well-known as meridians. The dimensions for both are provided in degrees; more precise locations are expressed by increments of minutes and secs.

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Lines indicating latitude circle the globe in an eastwest direction, in between the North and also South Poles. Latitude lines parallel the equator, itself an imaginary line but one that deserve to be identified with exactness. The equator lies midmethod between the North and South Poles and also is assigned a latitude of 0 degrees. All various other points are offered in relation to their distance north or southern of the equator. The highest possible latitude possible is 90 degrees, which is the latitude of the North and South Poles: 90 levels N and also 90 degrees S. Each level of latitude exoften tends 69 mi (111 km).


Ptolemy was the initially to usage latitude and longitude lines and measure them in levels in his book,, composed around 150 B.C.E. Today, popular lines of latitude enclose the ANTARCTIC and ARCTIC CIRCLEs at 66 levels 33 minutes southern or north, which defines the area that experiences at leastern one full day of darkness in winter. Other named latitude lines are the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, which are at 23 degrees 27 minutes southern or north. The TROPIC OF CAPRICORN and the TROPIC OF CANCER mark the points furthest south and also north, wbelow the sunlight can be seen straight overhead at least sooner or later during the year.

Longitude lines, which had actually been envisioned on maps from Ptolemy's time, were much even more hard to solve with accuracy. While the north-south lines can be drawn anywhere on a globe, the questions of wright here to location 0 degrees and also exactly how to measure from it were not readdressed till newly. Unfavor latitudes, which parallel each various other, longitudinal lines are even more acomponent from each various other at the equator, and converge at the poles.

Because the measurement of any such line might follow the sunlight, going from eastern to west, it have the right to be a measurement of time and distance. The Earth is 360 levels, divisible by 24-hour periods; the Earth rotates 15 degrees each hour. For ships at sea, figuring longitude—and thus, their own location—meant learning the specific time in their house port, and the exact time at sea, and measuring the distinction. In 1714, the British Longitude Act available a prize of 20,000 pounds to anyone who might track longitude through an accuracy of .5 levels.

In the 1770s, the prize was won by a clockmaker named John Harriboy, whose chronometers were verified exact on voyeras via Captain James Cook. In 1884, the British federal government declared that the meridian running via the Greenwich Observatory near LONDON, England also, would be the prime meridian, through a measurement of 0 degrees. Previous to that, and also previous to acceptance of that decree by various other nations, various other meridians had actually served as 0 levels. Washington D.C. and also PARIS, FRANCE, for instance, measured longitude from their own Prime Meridians.

Traveling west from the Greenwich Observatory, any spot in between 0 degrees and 180 levels, is taken into consideration west longitude. The line at 180 levels is precisely opposite the Prime Meridian on the other side of the Planet, and serves as the INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE. Going eastern, any place in between 0 degrees and 180 levels is designated eastern longitude.

Fixing latitude and also longitude in the 2first century relies more on satellite innovation than chronometers. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was occurred and deployed by the U.S. Department of Defense to find coordinates on or above the Planet. Electronic receivers decode and triangulate the indevelopment from this system to provide latitude, longitude, and elevation. GPS receivers have actually varied uses: scientists and also engineers measure tectonic motion, sectors track their vehicles, and simple consumers navigate while cruising or hiking. Civilian use is deliberately degraded and limited to 100 meters, while military usage of Precision (P) code is specific to 20 meters.

GPS is referred to as NAVSTAR (an acronym for Navigation System with Timing and Ranging) by the UNITED STATE army, and also ended up being totally operational in 1994. Between 1989 and 2004, 50 GENERAL PRACTITIONERS satellites had been deployed. A minimum of 24 circle the globe on 6 orbital planes.

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Longitude and latitude collaborates might be gathered by a GENERAL PRACTITIONERS receiver and also uploaded right into a geographical indevelopment system (GIS). File capture (the insertion of indevelopment right into the system) needs identifying the objects on a map and also noting their exact international positions and their spatial relationships. Indevelopment from satellite imeras or aerial photographs might likewise be extracted through computer software application and also inserted into the database. Existing digital information that is not in map form deserve to be converted by GIS right into usable create.