The people of pharmaceutical production is an expensive one. Many type of drugs have actually numerous actions in their synthesis and use costly muzic-ivan.infoicals. A good deal of study takes location to construct much better means to make drugs quicker and also even more efficiently. Studying just how a lot of a compound is developed in any kind of given reaction is a critical part of price manage.

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Percent Yield

muzic-ivan.infoical reactions in the genuine world don"t always go precisely as planned on paper. In the course of an experiment, many type of things will certainly add to the formation of much less product thanpredicted. Besides spills and also various other experimental errors, there are generally losses as a result of an infinish reaction, unpreferable side reactions, etc. muzic-ivan.infoists need a measurement that suggests just how successful a reaction has actually been. This measurement is dubbed the percent yield.

To compute the percent yield, it is first necessary to identify how a lot of the product have to be created based on stoichiometry. This is called the theoretical yield, the maximum amount of product that can be formed from the given quantities of reactants. The actual yield is the amount of product that is actually developed as soon as the reaction is lugged out in the laboratory. The percent yield is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, expressed as a percent.

< extPercent Yield = frac extActual Yield extTheoretical Yield imes 100\%>

Percent yield is incredibly essential in the manufacture of commodities. Much time and also money is invested boosting the percent yield for muzic-ivan.infoical production. When complex muzic-ivan.infoicals are synthesized by many kind of different reactions, one step via a low percent yield deserve to quickly reason a large waste of reactants and unvital price.

Generally, percent yields are understandably less than (100\%) because of the reasons shown previously. However before, percent returns greater than (100\%) are feasible if the measured product of the reactivity includes impurities that reason its mass to be higher than it actually would certainly be if the product was pure. When a muzic-ivan.infoist synthesizes a preferred muzic-ivan.infoical, he or she is always cautious to purify the assets of the reaction. Example (PageIndex1) illustprices the procedures for determining percent yield.

Example (PageIndex1): Decomplace of Potassium Chlorate

Potassium chloprice decomposes upon slight heating in the existence of a catalyst, according to the reaction below:

<2 ceKClO_3 left( s ight) ightarrowhead 2 ceKCl left( s ight) + 3 ceO_2 left( g ight) onumber>

In a particular experiment, (40.0 : extg : ceKClO_3) is heated until it entirely decomposes. The experiment is performed and the oxygen gas is collected and its mass is uncovered to be (14.9 : extg).

What is the theoretical yield of oxygen gas? What is the percent yield for the reaction?


a. Calculation of theoretical yield

First, we will certainly calculate the theoretical yield based on the stoichiomeattempt.

Tip 1: Identify the "given" information and what the trouble is asking you to "find".

Given: Mass of (ceKClO_3 = 40.0 : extg)

Mass of O2 built up = 14.9g

Find: Theoretical yield, g O2

Step 2: List other well-known quantities and plan the problem.

1 mol KClO3 = 122.55 g/mol

1 mol O2 - 32.00 g/mol

Tip 3: Apply stoichiomeattempt to transform from the mass of a reactant to the mass of a product:


Given: 1.274 g CuSO4

Actual yield = 0.392 g Cu

Find: Percent yield

List various other recognized amounts.

1 mol CuSO4= 159.62 g/mol 1 mol Cu = 63.55 g/mol

Because the amount of product in grams is not compelled, only the molar mass of the reactants is essential.

Balance the equation.

The muzic-ivan.infoical equation is currently well balanced.

The well balanced equation provides the relationship of 1 mol CuSO4 to 1 mol Zn to 1 mol Cu to 1 mol ZnSO4.

Prepare a concept map and also usage the appropriate conversion aspect.


The offered information identifies copper sulfate as the limiting reactant, and also so the theoretical yield (g Cu) is discovered by percreating mass-mass calculation based on the initial amount of CuSO4.

Cancel devices and calculate.

Using this theoretical yield and the provided worth for actual yield, the percent yield is calculated to be:

Think about your result. Because the actual yield is slightly less than the theoretical yield, the percent yield is just under (100\%).

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Theoretical yield is calculated based upon the stoichiomeattempt of the muzic-ivan.infoical equation. The actual yield is experimentally identified. The percent yield is figured out by calculating the ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield.