Table 5.1 shows the four major categories of market structures and also their characteristics.

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Table 5.1 Market Structure Characteristics


Free entry and exit

Barriers to entry

No entry

Perfect competition is on one end of the sector framework spectrum, with many firms. The word, “numerous” has one-of-a-kind definition in this context. In a perfectly competitive industry, each firm is so small relative to the sector that it cannot influence the price of the good. Each perfectly competitive firm is a price taker. Therefore, numerous firms implies that each firm is so small that it is a price taker.

Monopoly is the other too much of the sector structure spectrum, with a single firm. Monopolies have actually monopoly power, or the capability to change the price of the good. Monopoly power is also dubbed sector power, and also is measured by the Lerner Index.

This chapter defines and describes two intermediary market structures: monopolistic competition and also oligopoly.

Monopolistic Competition = A sector structure characterized by a identified product and also freedom of enattempt and also leave.

Monopolistically Competitive firms have actually one characteristic that is prefer a syndicate (a differentiated product provides sector power), and also one characteristic that is like a competitive firm (liberty of entry and exit). This form of industry framework is prevalent in market-based economic climates, and a trip to the grocery save reveals large numbers of differentiated products: toothpaste, laundry soap, breakfast cereal, and so on.

Next, we define the market framework oligopoly.

Oligopoly = A sector framework characterized by obstacles to entry and a couple of firms.

Oligopoly is a fascinating market structure as a result of interactivity and also interdependency between oligopolistic firms. What one firm does affects the various other firms in the oligopoly.

Because monopolistic competition and also oligopoly are intermediary industry structures, the next section will review the properties and also features of perfect competition and monopoly. These qualities will provide the specifying attributes of monopolistic competition and also oligopoly.

5.1.2 Rewatch of Perfect Competition

The perfectly competitive sector has four characteristics:

(1) Homogenous product,

(2) Large number of buyers and sellers (plenty of firms),

(3) Freedom of entry and exit, and

(4) Perfect information.

The opportunity of entry and also exit of firms occurs in the lengthy run, because the variety of firms is addressed in the short run.

An equilibrium is identified as a suggest wright here tright here is no tendency to readjust. The principle of equilibrium deserve to be extfinished to include the short run and lengthy run.

Short Run Equilibrium = A suggest from which tbelow is no tendency to readjust (a secure state), and a solved variety of firms.

Long Run Equilibrium = A point from which there is no tendency to readjust (a stable state), and also entry and also departure of firms.

In the brief run, the number of firms is fixed, whereas in the lengthy run, enattempt and also departure of firms is possible, based upon profit problems. We will compare the short and long run for a competitive firm in Figure 5.1. The 2 panels in Figure 5.1 are for the firm (left) and sector (right), via vastly various units. This is emphasized by utilizing “q” for the firm’s output level, and “Q” for the sector output level. The graph mirrors both short run and lengthy run equilibria for a perfectly competitive firm and sector. In short run equilibrium, the firms faces a high price (PSR), produces quantity QSR at PSR = MC, and also earns positive earnings πSR.


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Figure 5.1 Short Run and Long Run Equilibria for a Perfectly Competitive Firm

Hopeful profits in the short run (πSR > 0) result in enattempt of other firms, as there are no obstacles to entry in a competitive market. The entry of brand-new firms shifts the supply curve in the sector graph from supply SSR to supply SLR. Enattempt will occur till revenues are propelled to zero, and also lengthy run equilibrium is reached at Q*LR. In the long run, financial revenues are equal to zero, so tbelow is no inspiration for enattempt or leave. Each firm is earning precisely what it is worth, the possibility prices of all sources. In long run equilibrium, profits are zero (πLR = 0), and also price amounts to the minimum average expense allude (P = min AC = MC). Marginal prices equal average prices at the minimum average expense point. At the lengthy run price, supply amounts to demand at price PLR.


5.1.3 Recheck out of Monopoly

The features of monopoly include: (1) one firm, (2) one product, and (3) no enattempt (Table 5.1). The monopoly solution is shown in Figure 5.2.


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Figure 5.2 Monopoly Profit Maximization

Keep in mind that long-run earnings deserve to exist for a monopoly, considering that barriers to entry halt any type of potential entrants from joining the industry. In the following area, we will certainly discover industry frameworks that lie in between the 2 extremes of perfect competition and also monopoly.

5.2 Monopolistic Competition

Monopolistic competition is a industry structure identified by cost-free entry and also exit, prefer competition, and differentiated assets, choose monopoly. Differentiated commodities carry out each firm through some sector power. Advertising and also marketing of each individual product provide uniqueness that causes the demand curve of each excellent to be downward sloping. Free enattempt indicates that each firm competes through various other firms and also earnings are equal to zero on lengthy run equilibrium. If a monopolistically competitive firm is earning positive financial revenues, enattempt will occur till economic profits are equal to zero.

5.2.1 Monopolistic Competition in the Short and Long Runs

The demand also curve of a monopolistically competitive firm is downward sloping, indicating that the firm has a level of market power. Market power derives from product differentiation, considering that each firm produces a various product. Each excellent has many close substitutes, so sector power is limited: if the price is boosted also much, consumers will certainly transition to competitors’ products.


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Figure 5.3 Monopolistic Competition in the Short Run and Long Run

Quick and also lengthy run equilibria for the monopolistically competitive firm are shown in Figure 5.3. The demand curve encountering the firm is downward sloping, however fairly elastic as a result of the availcapability of cshed substitutes. The short run equilibrium appears in the left hand also panel, and is practically identical to the monopoly graph. The just distinction is that for a monopolistically competitive firm, the demand also is relatively elastic, or flat. Otherwise, the brief run profit-maximizing solution is the exact same as a syndicate. The firm sets marginal revenue equal to marginal price, produces output level q*SR and charges price PSR. The profit level is displayed by the shaded rectangle π.


The long run equilibrium is displayed in the best hand also panel. Enattempt of various other firms occurs till revenues are equal to zero; full earnings are equal to full expenses. Hence, the demand curve is tangent to the average cost curve at the optimal lengthy run quantity, q*LR. The lengthy run profit-maximizing amount is discovered where marginal revenue amounts to marginal expense, which also occurs at q*LR.

5.2.2 Economic Efficiency and Monopolistic Competition

Tright here are two resources of ineffectiveness in monopolistic competition. First, dead weight loss (DWL) because of monopoly power: price is better than marginal cost (P > MC). 2nd, excess capacity: the equilibrium quantity is smaller than the lowest price amount at the minimum suggest on the average cost curve (q*LR minAC). These two sources of inefficiency deserve to be watched in Figure 5.4.


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Figure 5.4 Comparikid of Efficiency for Competition and Monopolistic Competition

First, tbelow is dead weight loss (DWL) as a result of industry power: the price is higher than marginal price in long run equilibrium. In the right hand also panel of Figure 5.4, the price at the long run equilibrium amount is PLR, and also marginal price is lower: PLR > MC. This causes dead weight loss to culture, because the competitive equilibrium would be at a bigger amount where P = MC. Total dead weight loss is the shaded area beneath the demand curve and above the MC curve in number 5.4.


The second source of inperformance linked with monopolistic competition is excess capacity. This have the right to additionally be viewed in the appropriate hand also panel of Figure 5.4, wright here the lengthy run equilibrium amount is reduced than the quantity wright here average expenses are lowest (qminAC). Thus, the firm could develop at a reduced expense by increasing output to the level wbelow average prices are minimized.

Given these 2 inefficiencies connected with monopolistic competition, some individuals and groups have called for federal government treatment. Regulation could be used to alleviate or remove the inefficiencies by rerelocating product differentiation. This would lead to a solitary product instead of a big number of cshed substitutes.

Regulation is more than likely not a great solution to the inefficiencies of monopolistic competition, for 2 factors. First, the industry power of a typical firm in the majority of monopolistically competitive sectors is little. Each monopolistically competitive market has many kind of firms that create sufficiently substitutable products to carry out enough competition to result in relatively low levels of market power. If the firms have little levels of industry power, then the deadweight loss and also excess capacity inefficiencies are most likely to be small.

2nd, the benefit offered by monopolistic competition is product diversity. The gain from product diversity have the right to be large, as consumers are willing to pay for various attributes and qualities. Thus, the get from product diversity is likely to outweigh the expenses of ineffectiveness. Evidence for this insurance claim can be watched in market-based economies, where tright here is a huge amount of product diversity.

The following chapter will present and discuss oligopoly: strategic interactions in between firms!

5.3 Oligopoly Models

An oligopoly is characterized as a sector structure through few firms and barriers to enattempt.

Oligopoly = A sector structure through few firms and also barriers to entry.

There is regularly a high level of competition in between firms, as each firm renders decisions on prices, amounts, and declaring to maximize revenues. Because tbelow are a little variety of firms in an oligopoly, each firm’s profit level counts not only on the firm’s very own decisions, but additionally on the decisions of the other firms in the oligopolistic market.

5.3.1 Strategic Interactions

Each firm must think about both: (1) various other firms’ reactions to a firm’s own decisions, and (2) the very own firm’s reactions to the various other firms’ decisions. Hence, there is a consistent interplay in between decisions and also reactions to those decisions by all firms in the market. Each oligopolist must take right into account these strategic interactions as soon as making decisions. Due to the fact that all firms in an oligopoly have actually outcomes that depfinish on the other firms, these strategic interactions are the structure of the research and expertise of oligopoly.

For example, each auto firm’s market share depends on the prices and quantities of all of the various other firms in the industry. If Ford lowers prices relative to various other auto manufacturers, it will certainly boost its sector share at the cost of the various other auto suppliers.

When making decisions that take into consideration the possible reactions of various other firms, firm supervisors commonly assume that the managers of competing firms are rational and also intelligent. These strategic interactions develop the examine of game concept, the topic of Chapter 6 below. John Nash (1928-2015), an American mathematician, was a pioneer in game concept. Economists and also mathematicians usage the concept of a Nash Equilibrium (NE) to describe a common outcome in game concept that is frequently provided in the research of oligopoly.

Nash Equilibrium = An outcome wbelow there is no tendency to change based on each individual choosing a strategy provided the strategy of rivals.

In the examine of oligopoly, the Nash Equilibrium assumes that each firm provides rational profit-maximizing decisions while holding the behavior of rival firms continuous. This presumption is made to simplify oligopoly models, offered the potential for massive complexity of strategic interactions in between firms. As an aside, this assumption is among the interesting themes of the movement photo, “A Beautiful Mind,” starring Rusoffer Crowe as John Nash. The concept of Nash Equilibrium is likewise the foundation of the models of oligopoly presented in the next 3 sections: the Cournot, Bertrand also, and also Stackelberg models of oligopoly.

5.3.2 Cournot Model

Augustin Cournot (1801-1877), a French mathematician, emerged the initially model of oligopoly explored right here. The Cournot model is a version of oligopoly in which firms create a homogeneous excellent, assuming that the competitor’s output is resolved when deciding how much to develop.

A numerical instance of the Cournot model adheres to, wright here it is assumed that tright here are two identical firms (a duopoly), through output offered by Qi (i=1,2). As such, complete market output is equal to: Q = Q1 + Q2. Market demand also is a role of price and also given by Qd = Qd(P), for this reason the inverse demand attribute is P = P(Qd). Note that the price depends on the sector output Q, which is the sum of both individual firm’s outputs. In this method, each firm’s output has actually an affect on the price and earnings of both firms. This is the basis for strategic interactivity in the Cournot model: if one firm boosts output, it lowers the price dealing with both firms. The inverse demand also attribute and also expense function are provided in Equation 5.1.

(5.1) P = 40 – QC(Qi) = 7Qi i = 1,2

Each firm chooses the optimal, profit-maximizing output level given the various other firm’s output. This will cause a Nash Equilibrium, considering that each firm is holding the habits of the rival consistent. Firm One maximizes earnings as adheres to.

max π1 = TR1 – TC1

max π1 = P(Q)Q1 – C(Q1)

max π1 = <40 – Q>Q1 – 7Q1

max π1 = <40 – Q1 – Q2>Q1 – 7Q1

max π1 = 40Q1 – Q12 – Q2Q1 – 7Q1

∂π1/∂Q1= 40 – 2Q1 – Q2 – 7 = 0

2Q1 = 33 – Q2

Q1* = 16.5 – 0.5Q2

This equation is dubbed the “Reactivity Function” of Firm One. This is as far as the mathematical solution have the right to be streamlined, and also represents the Cournot solution for Firm One. It is a reaction function considering that it explains Firm One’s reaction provided the output level of Firm Two. This equation represents the strategic interactions in between the 2 firms, as changes in Firm Two’s output level will cause changes in Firm One’s response. Firm One’s optimal output level relies on Firm Two’s behavior and also decision making. Oligopolists are interlinked in both habits and outcomes.

The 2 firms are assumed to be identical in this duopoly. As such, Firm Two’s reaction feature will certainly be symmetrical to the Firm One’s reactivity feature (inspect this by setting up and also fixing the profit-maximization equation for Firm Two):

Q2* = 16.5 – 0.5Q1

The 2 reactivity features deserve to be supplied to resolve for the Cournot-Nash Equilibrium. Tright here are 2 equations and also two unknowns (Q1 and also Q2), so a numerical solution is found via substitution of one equation into the various other.

Q1* = 16.5 – 0.5(16.5 – 0.5Q1)

Q1* = 16.5 – 8.25 + 0.25Q1

Q1* = 8.25 + 0.25Q1

0.75Q1* = 8.25

Q1* = 11

Due to symmetry from the assumption of similar firms:

Qi = 11 i = 1,2Q = 22systems P = 18 USD/unit

Profits for each firm are:

πi = P(Q)Qi – C(Qi) = 18(11) – 7(11) = (18 – 7)11 = 11(11) = 121 USD

This is the Cournot-Nash solution for oligopoly, uncovered by each firm assuming that the various other firm holds its output level consistent. The Cournot version deserve to be conveniently extended to even more than two firms, however the math does obtain progressively facility as even more firms are added. Economists make use of the Cournot model bereason is based upon intuitive and also realistic presumptions, and also the Cournot solution is intermediary in between the outcomes of the 2 excessive market frameworks of perfect competition and monopoly.

This deserve to be seen by solving the numerical instance for competition, Cournot, and monopoly models, and also comparing the options for each sector structure.

In a competitive sector, complimentary entry results in price equal to marginal cost (P = MC). In the case of the numerical instance, PC = 7. When this competitive price is substituted into the inverse demand also equation, 7 = 40 – Q, or Qc = 33. Profits are discovered by addressing (P – MC)Q, or πc = (7 – 7)Q = 0. The competitive solution is provided in Equation (5.2).

(5.2) Pc = 7 USD/unitQc = 33 unitsπc = 0 USD

The monopoly solution is uncovered by maximizing revenues as a single firm.

max πm = TRm – TCm

max πm = P(Qm)Qm – C(Qm)

max πm = <40 – Qm>Qm – 7Qm

max πm = 40Qm – Qm2 – 7Qm

∂πm/∂Qm= 40 – 2Qm – 7 = 0

2Qm = 33

Qm* = 16.5

Pm = 40 – 16.5 = 23.5

πm = (Pm – MCm)Qm = (23.5 – 7)16.5 = 16.5(16.5) = 272.25 USD

The monopoly solution is given in Equation (5.3).

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(5.3) Pm = 23.5 USD/unit Qm = 16.5 unitsπm = 272.5 USD

The competitive, Cournot, and also monopoly services deserve to be compared on the very same graph for the numerical example (Figure 5.5).