Liquid crystal phases have a selection of various structures, however all have actually one thing in common: they flow similarly to viscous liquids, however present the physical habits of crystals.

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After over 1twenty years of research in liquid crystals, a big variety of liquid crystal phases have been uncovered. Liquid crystal phases have a range of various structures, however all have actually one thing in common: they flow in a similar means to viscous liquids, yet present the physical behavior of crystals. Their appearance depends on miscellaneous criteria, including molecular framework and temperature, as well as their concentration and the solvent.

A crystal can be defined making use of a coordinate system. Each atom of a molecule has its particular place. The structure of a crystal can be decreased to a tiny unit, the primitive cell, which is repeated periodically in all 3 dimensions. This periodicity describes the long-variety order of a crystal. A crystal is a extremely ordered mechanism in which the physical properties have various characteristics according to the viewing angle. This is dubbed anisotropy. The properties of a liquid crystal phase are likewise anisotropic, although the framework can no longer be defined in a coordinate system. The periodicity and also thus the long-selection order are lost. Molecules orient themselves by their neighboring molecules, so that just short-variety order can be observed. In contrast, a liquid is a fully disordered system, in which the physical properties are isotropic, i.e. directionally independent. What a liquid crystal phase and a liquid have in prevalent is fluidity.


In LCD modern technology, the thermotropic nematic phase is by far the most substantial phase. It is developed from rod-shaped (calamitic) molecules that ararray themselves roughly parallel to each other. These molecules can also develop smectic phases, which exist in multiple manifestations. Smectic phases are more ordered than nematic phases: and also the parallel alignment of the molecules, they additionally develop layers.

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As the temperature rises, the order of a system decreases. The temperature at which a liquid crystal phase is converted to the isotropic liquid is dubbed the clearing point. A substance may create one or more liquid crystal phases if the structural conditions enable this. However, the appearance of liquid crystal phases is not necessarily an effect of the molecular framework.


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Liquid crystal phases classification

Several liquid crystal phases have actually been uncovered and also classified. Their appearance relies on miscellaneous criteria – their molecular framework and temperature, for instance, as well as their concentration and the solvent.


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Structure of a crystal

The framework of a crystal can be decreased to a tiny unit, the primitive cell, which is repetitive periodically in all 3 dimensions.


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LC phases in temperature profile

The nematic phase is the the majority of significant liquid crystal phase in display screen modern technology. As temperature boosts, the order of the structure decreases.