Throughout this module we have disputed just how human being interact and affect one another’s thoughts, feelings, and also habits in both positive and negative methods. People can occupational together to attain good points, such as helping each various other in emergencies: recontact the heroism presented during the 9/11 terrorist attacks. People likewise deserve to do excellent damage to one one more, such as condeveloping to team norms that are immoral and also obeying authority to the suggest of murder: take into consideration the mass conformity of Nazis during WWII. In this section we will certainly talk about a negative side of humale behavior—prejudice, discrimicountry, and also aggression.

You are watching: _____ refers to a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members.


Learning Objectives

Define and carry out examples of prejudice, stereokinds, and also discriminationExplain why prejudice and discrimination exist while demonstrating an expertise of scapegoat concept, in-groups, and also out-groups

Human being dispute can cause crime, war, and also mass murder, such as genocide. Prejudice and discrimicountry frequently are root reasons of humale conflict, which describes how strangers come to hate one an additional to the excessive of leading to others injury. Prejudice and also discrimicountry impact everyone. In this area we will research the meanings of prejudice and discrimination, examples of these principles, and also causes of these biases.


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Figure 1. Prejudice and discrimination occur throughout the globe. (a) A 1939 authorize in German-lived in Poland also alerts “No Entrance for Poles!” (b) An African-Amerideserve to male drinks from a designated “colored” water fountain in Oklahoma in 1939 during the era of racial segregation as a practice of discrimicountry. (c) A member of the Westboro Baptist Church, extensively determined as a hate team, engeras in discrimination based on religious beliefs and sex-related orientation. (credit b: alteration of work-related by United States Farm Security Administration; crmodify c: alteration of occupational by “JCWilmore”/Wikimedia Commons)


Understanding Prejudice and also Discrimination

As we debated in the opening story of Trayvon Martin, people are incredibly varied and although we share many similarities, we likewise have many distinctions. The social groups we belong to assist develop our identities (Tajfel, 1974). These differences might be difficult for some civilization to reconcile, which might bring about prejudice toward human being who are different. Prejudice is an unfavorable perspective and also feeling toward an individual based solely on one’s membership in a specific social group (Allport, 1954; Brvery own, 2010). Prejudice is prevalent versus people who are members of an unacquainted cultural group. Therefore, certain types of education and learning, contact, interactions, and also structure relationships through members of different cultural groups deserve to mitigate the tendency towards prejudice. In truth, ssuggest imagining connecting through members of different social teams can impact prejudice. Undoubtedly, when experimental participants were asked to imagine themselves positively interacting with someone from a various team, this resulted in an increased positive perspective toward the various other team and also a boost in positive traits connected via the other team. Additionally, imagined social interaction deserve to reduce stress associated via inter-group interactions (Crisp & Turner, 2009). What are some examples of social groups that you belong to that contribute to your identity? Social teams have the right to encompass gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, social class, faith, sex-related orientation, profession, and also many kind of more. And, as is true for social functions, you have the right to at the same time be a member of more than one social group. An example of prejudice is having a negative attitude towards human being that are not born in the United States. Although people holding this prejudiced perspective carry out not recognize all world that were not born in the USA, they dischoose them as a result of their status as foreigners.

Can you think of a prejudiced attitude you have organized toward a team of people? How did your prejudice develop? Prejudice often begins in the create of a stereotype—that is, an unfavorable belief around individuals based solely on their membership in a group, regardless of their individual attributes. Stereotypes end up being overgeneralised and applied to all members of a team. For instance, someone holding prejudiced attitudes toward older adults, might think that older adults are sluggish and inproficient (Cuddy, Norton, & Fiske, 2005; Nelchild, 2004). We cannot possibly understand each individual perboy of advanced age to understand that all older adults are slow-moving and inknowledgeable. Thus, this negative idea is overgeneralised to all members of the group, also though many of the individual team members might in truth be spry and also intelligent.

Anvarious other instance of a popular stereotype requires beliefs about racial differences among athletes. As Hodge, Burden, Robinkid, and Bennett (2008) allude out, Black male athletes are frequently believed to be even more athletic, yet much less intelligent, than their White male counterparts. These beliefs persist despite a number of high profile examples to the contrary. Sadly, such ideas regularly influence exactly how these athletes are treated by others and also how they view themselves and their very own capabilities. Whether or not you agree via a stereotype, stereokinds are primarily popular within in a given culture (Devine, 1989).

Sometimes civilization will act on their prejudiced attitudes toward a team of people, and also this behavior is well-known as discrimicountry. Discrimination is negative activity toward an individual as a result of one’s membership in a details group (Allport, 1954; Dovidio & Gaertner, 2004). As an outcome of holding negative beliefs (stereotypes) and also negative attitudes (prejudice) about a specific team, people frequently treat the target of prejudice poorly, such as excluding older adults from their circle of friends. Table 1 summarizes the qualities of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimicountry. Have you ever before been the target of discrimination? If so, just how did this negative treatment make you feel?

Table 1. Connecting Stereokinds, Prejudice, and also DiscriminationItemFunctionConnectionExample
StereotypeCognitive; thoughts around peopleOvergeneralized ideas around people might cause prejudice.“Yankees fans are arrogant and obnoxious.”
PrejudiceAffective; feelings around people, both positive and negativeFeelings might affect therapy of others, bring about discrimicountry.“I hate Yankees fans; they make me angry.”
DiscriminationBehavior; positive or negative therapy of othersHolding stereotypes and harboring prejudice might bring about excluding, preventing, and also biased treatment of group members.

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“I would never before hire nor become friends via a perboy if I knew he or she were a Yankees fan.”

So far, we’ve discussed stereokinds, prejudice, and also discrimicountry as negative thoughts, feelings, and behaviors bereason these are commonly the most problematic. However, it is crucial to also suggest out that world have the right to host positive thoughts, feelings, and habits toward individuals based on group membership; for example, they would display preferential therapy for human being that are favor themselves—that is, that share the same sex, race, or favorite sports team.