For this evaluation we surveyed 3,030 U.S. Hispanic adults in December 2019 as component of the 2019 National Survey of Latinos. We asked survey respondents about their awareness of the term Latinx and also their views of the term. The sample has 2,094 Hispanic adults who were members of Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an digital survey panel that is recruited with nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses. It also has an oversample of 936 respondents sampled from Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, one more online survey panel likewise recruited through nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses. For the functions of this report, references to foreign-born Hispanics include those born in Puerto Rico. Individuals born in Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens by birth. The survey was carried out in both English and Spanish.
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See the Methodology section of this report for more details.
The terms Hispanic and Latino are provided interchangeably in this report.
Latinx is a term provided to explain world that are of or relate to Latin Amerideserve to beginning or descent. It is a gender-neutral or nonbinary alternative to Latino or Latina.
U.S. born describes persons born in the USA and those born in various other nations to parents at least one of whom was a U.S. citizen.
Foregime born describes persons born outside of the United States to paleas neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The terms international born and immigive are used interchangeably in this report. For the purposes of this report, foreign born likewise consists of those born in Puerto Rico. Although people born in Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens by birth, they are had among the foreign born for this report bereason they are born into a Spanish-leading society and also bereason on many points their mindsets, views and beliefs are a lot closer to Hispanics born abroad than to Hispanics born in the 50 claims or the District of Columbia, even those who recognize themselves as being of Puerto Rican origin.
2nd generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia with at leastern one first-generation, or immigive, parent.
Third and also better generation refers to world born in the 50 claims or the District of Columbia via both paleas born in the 50 claims or the District of Columbia.
Language prominence is a compowebsite meacertain based on self-explained assessments of speaking and reading abilities. Spanish-dominant people are even more knowledgeable in Spanish than in English (i.e., they stop and also check out Spanish “extremely well” or “pretty well” but price their English-speaking and also reading ability lower). Bilingual refers to human being that are skilled in both English and Spanish. English-dominant human being are even more skilled in English than in Spanish.
Pan-ethnic labels describing the UNITED STATE populace of civilization tracing their roots to Latin America and also Spain have been introduced over the years, rising and falling in popularity. Today, the two leading labels in usage are Hispanic and also Latino, via beginnings in the 1970s and 1990s respectively.
However before, for the populace it is meant to define, only 23% of UNITED STATE adults that self-identify as Hispanic or Latino have heard of the term Latinx, and also simply 3% say they usage it to define themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual survey of UNITED STATE Hispanic adults carried out in December 2019 by Pew Research Center.
The development of Latinx coincides via an international movement to present gender-neutral nouns and pronouns into many kind of langueras whose grammar has actually traditionally used male or female constructions. In the United States, the initially offers of Latinx appeared even more than a decade ago. It was included to a extensively used English dictionary in 2018, showing its higher use.
Yet the use of Latinx is not common practice, and also the term’s emergence has actually generated conflict about its appropriateness in a gendered language favor Spanish. Some critics allude to its origins among UNITED STATE English speakers, saying it ignores the Spanish language and also its gendered develop.1 Still, tbelow are examples of the term’s usage in Spanish in the U.S. and also awide.2 On the other hand, others watch Latinx as a gender- and also LGBTQ-inclusive term, reflecting a more comprehensive movement within the UNITED STATE about gender identification.
In enhancement, the U.S. born are more most likely than the international born to have heard the term (32% vs. 16%), and Hispanics who are primarily English speakers or bilingual are even more most likely than those that largely stop Spanish to say the same (29% for both vs. 7%).
Hispanics who determine via or lean toward the Democratic Party are more most likely to have heard of Latinx than those who determine via or lean towards the Republideserve to Party (29% vs. 16%).
Awareness of the term Latinx does not necessarily translate right into use. Across many demographic subgroups, the share of Hispanics that say they use Latinx to describe their very own identity is substantially lower than the share who say they have actually heard it. Use is among the highest for Hispanic womales eras 18 to 29 – 14% say they use it, a substantially higher share than the 1% of Hispanic guys in the exact same age team who say they use it.
The introduction of Hispanic, Latino and also Latinx
Throughout the last half-century in the U.S., different pan-ethnic terms have actually occurred to define Americans that map their roots to Latin America and Spain.
The term Hispanic was first provided by the U.S. government in the 1970s after Mexihave the right to American and also other Hispanic institutions lobbied the federal federal government to collect data on the populace. Subsequently, the U.S Congress passed Public Law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the collection of information around U.S. occupants of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central Amerideserve to, South Amerihave the right to and also other Spanish-speaking country beginnings. The regulation referred to as for the U.S. Census Bureau to develop a more comprehensive category that encompassed all people that figured out having roots from these countries. The term Hispanic was initially used in a complete census in 1980.
The 1990s lugged resistance to the term Hispanic, as it adopted a solid connection with Spain, and also an different term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the UNITED STATE Office of Management and Spending Plan issued a directive including the term Latino to government publications. The 2 terms are provided interchangeably, with Latino initially appearing on the UNITED STATE census in 2000, alongside Hispanic.
More recently, Latinx has actually emerged as an different to Hispanic and also Latino. Online searches for the term among the general U.S. population appeared virtual in the early on 2000s. But the first comprehensive climb in searcs (loved one to all online searches) showed up in June 2016 following a shooting at Pulse nightclub, an LGBTQ dance club in Orlanperform, Florida, that was hosting its Latin Night on the day of the assault. In subsequent years, the term’s use on social media by celebrities, political leaders and grassroots institutions has grown. In addition, some academic centers at community colleges, public colleges and Ivy League universities are replacing Latino program names that were establiburned in previous years with brand-new Latinx-focused names.
In even more than 15 years of polling by Pew Research Center, half of Americans that trace their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and Spain have consistently shelp they have no choice for either Hispanic or Latino as a term to describe the team. And once one term is chosen over an additional, the term Hispanic has been wanted to Latino. Importantly, the exact same surveys show, nation of origin labels (such as Mexican or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are preferred to these pan-ethnic terms among the population they are expected to define.
Google searches for Latinx climbing in U.S., but trail far behind Latina, Latino and also Hispanic
The family member popularity of Latinx in online searches in the UNITED STATE has actually enhanced because 2016, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of Google Trends data.3 While its earliest Google searcs extend ago to the early 2000s, the highest monthly relative number of searcs for Latinx arisen in June 2020, surpassing a previous optimal in October 2019.4
Should Latinx be embraced as a pan-ethnic term for U.S. Hispanics?
While some Hispanics say Latinx must be offered as a pan-ethnic term, few say they favor it over others. A majority (61%) say they prefer Hispanic to explain the Hispanic or Latino populace in the UNITED STATE, and 29% say they like Latino. At the same time, simply 4% say they choose Latinx to explain the Hispanic or Latino population.
Preferral for Latinx as a pan-ethnic term is higher among those who are conscious of it – 10% in this team say they choose Latinx. Yet even among those conscious of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and also Latino (31%) are preferred.
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In their own words: What does Latinx expect to Hispanics?
When asked in an open-finished question what Latinx means in their very own words, 42% of those who have actually heard the term define it as a gender-neutral one. As one 21-year-old woman sassist, “Latinx is a much more inclusive term to usage for those that perform not select to recognize with a details sex. The terms Latino and also Latina are very limiting for particular civilization.”
Other responses from the open-ended question market various other descriptions of Latinx and reactions to it. For instance, 12% of respondents that had actually heard of Latinx expush disagreement or dischoose of the term. Some described the term as an “anglicism” of the Spanish language, while others say the term is “not representative of the larger Latino neighborhood.”
Amongst various other responses, 12% say Latinx is a term around being Hispanic or Latino, while 9% of those conscious of Latinx say it is an LGBTQ community inclusive term. And 6% of respondents that have actually heard of Latinx say it is a new, different or replacement term for Latino.