The atoms, molecules, or ions that write a muzic-ivan.infoical device have the right to undergo several types of molecular activity, consisting of translation, rotation, and also vibration (Figure (PageIndex1)). The better the molecular activity of a system, the higher the variety of feasible microsays and also the better the entropy. A perfectly ordered system through only a single microstate obtainable to it would have actually an entropy of zero. The only system that meets this criterion is a perfect crystal at a temperature of absolute zero (0 K), in which each component atom, molecule, or ion is solved in place within a crystal lattice and also exhibits no activity (ignoring quantum effects). Such a state of perfect order (or, conversely, zero disorder) corresponds to zero entropy. In practice, absolute zero is a suitable temperature that is unobtainable, and also a perfect single crystal is additionally a perfect that cannot be achieved. Nonethemuch less, the combicountry of these 2 ideals constitutes the basis for the third legislation of thermodynamics: the entropy of any type of perfectly ordered, crystalline substance at absolute zero is zero.

You are watching: Use the standard molar entropies to calculate

Figure (PageIndex1): Molecular Motions. Vibrational, rotational, and also translational motions of a carbon dioxide molecule are depicted right here. Only a perfectly ordered, crystalline substance at absolute zero would exhibit no molecular motion and also have actually zero entropy. In exercise, this is an unattainable appropriate.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of any perfectly ordered, crystalline substance at absolute zero is zero.

The third law of thermodynamics has 2 essential consequences: it defines the sign of the entropy of any kind of substance at temperatures over absolute zero as positive, and it provides a addressed reference allude that allows us to meacertain the absolute entropy of any kind of substance at any type of temperature.In exercise, muzic-ivan.infoists recognize the absolute entropy of a substance by measuring the molar warm capacity (Cp) as a role of temperature and then plotting the quantity Cp/T versus T. The area under the curve in between 0 K and also any temperature T is the absolute entropy of the substance at T. In comparison, other thermodynamic properties, such as inner power and also enthalpy, can be evaluated in only family member terms, not absolute terms. In this area, we examine two different methods to calculate ΔS for a reactivity or a physical adjust. The initially, based on the interpretation of absolute entropy gave by the third law of thermodynamics, provides tabulated worths of absolute entropies of substances. The second, based on the reality that entropy is a state function, provides a thermodynamic cycle comparable to those discussed previously.

Calculating ΔS from Standard Molar Entropy Values

One means of calculating ΔS for a reaction is to usage tabulated worths of the conventional molar entropy (S°), which is the entropy of 1 mol of a substance at a conventional temperature of 298 K; the devices of S° are J/(mol•K). Unchoose enthalpy or inner energy, it is possible to attain absolute entropy values by measuring the entropy change that occurs between the recommendation suggest of 0 K and also 298 K.

Figure (PageIndex2): A Generalized Plot of Entropy versus Temperature for a Single Substance. Absolute entropy rises steadily via raising temperature until the melting suggest is got to, wbelow it jumps unexpectedly as the substance undergoes a phase readjust from a very ordered solid to a disordered liquid (ΔSfus). The entropy aacquire boosts steadily through raising temperature till the boiling allude is reached, wbelow it jumps suddenly as the liquid undergoes a phase adjust to a extremely disordered gas (ΔSvap).

As shown in Table (PageIndex1), for substances through about the exact same molar mass and number of atoms, S° values fall in the order S°(gas) > S°(liquid) > S°(solid). For circumstances, S° for liquid water is 70.0 J/(mol•K), whereas S° for water vapor is 188.8 J/(mol•K). Likewise, S° is 260.7 J/(mol•K) for gaseous I2 and also 116.1 J/(mol•K) for solid I2. This order renders qualitative feeling based on the kinds and extents of motion easily accessible to atoms and molecules in the three phases. The correlation between physical state and also absolute entropy is portrayed in Figure (PageIndex2), which is a generalized plot of the entropy of a substance versus temperature.

Table (PageIndex1): Standard Molar Entropy Values of Selected Substances at 25°C
Gases Liquids Solids
Substance Substance Substance
He 126.2 H2O 70.0 C (diamond) 2.4
H2 130.7 CH3OH 126.8 C (graphite) 5.7
Ne 146.3 Br2 152.2 LiF 35.7
Ar 154.8 CH3CH2OH 160.7 SiO2 (quartz) 41.5
Kr 164.1 C6H6 173.4 Ca 41.6
Xe 169.7 CH3COCl 200.8 Na 51.3
H2O 188.8 C6H12 (cyclohexane) 204.4 MgF2 57.2
N2 191.6 C8H18 (isooctane) 329.3 K 64.7
O2 205.2 NaCl 72.1
CO2 213.8 KCl 82.6
I2 260.7 I2 116.1


Entropy boosts via softer, much less rigid solids, solids that contain bigger atoms, and also solids through complicated molecular structures.

A closer examination of Table (PageIndex1) also reveals that substances through similar molecular structures tfinish to have comparable S° worths. Amongst crystalline products, those with the lowest entropies tend to be rigid crystals composed of tiny atoms connected by strong, extremely directional bonds, such as diamond . In comparison, graphite, the softer, less rigid allotrope of carbon, has a higher S° <5.7 J/(mol•K)> due to more disorder in the crystal. Soft crystalline substances and those with bigger atoms tend to have actually better entropies bereason of raised molecular activity and also disorder. Similarly, the absolute entropy of a substance has a tendency to rise via raising molecular intricacy because the number of available microclaims rises via molecular complexity. For instance, compare the S° worths for CH3OH(l) and also CH3CH2OH(l). Finally, substances through solid hydrogen bonds have lower worths of S°, which reflects a more ordered framework.


ΔS° for a reactivity deserve to be calculated from absolute entropy values making use of the exact same “commodities minus reactants” dominion supplied to calculate ΔH°.

To calculate ΔS° for a muzic-ivan.infoical reaction from typical molar entropies, we usage the acquainted “commodities minus reactants” preeminence, in which the absolute entropy of each reactant and product is multiplied by its stoichiometric coeffective in the well balanced muzic-ivan.infoical equation. Example (PageIndex1) illustrates this procedure for the combustion of the liquid hydrocarbon isooctane (C8H18; 2,2,4-trimethylpentane).

Example (PageIndex1)

Use the data in Table (PageIndex1) to calculate ΔS° for the reactivity of liquid isooctane via O2(g) to give CO2(g) and also H2O(g) at 298 K.

Given: traditional molar entropies, reactants, and products

Asked for: ΔS°


Write the well balanced muzic-ivan.infoical equation for the reaction and also identify the correct quantities in Table (PageIndex1). Subtract the sum of the absolute entropies of the reactants from the sum of the absolute entropies of the assets, each multiplied by their proper stoichiometric coefficients, to achieve ΔS° for the reactivity.


The balanced muzic-ivan.infoical equation for the complete burning of isooctane (C8H18) is as follows:

We calculate ΔS° for the reactivity using the “commodities minus reactants” preeminence, wright here m and also n are the stoichiometric coefficients of each product and each reactant:

eginalignDelta S^circ_ extrmrxn&=amount mS^circ( extrmproducts)-amount nS^circ( extrmreactants)\ &=<8S^circ(mathrmCO_2)+9S^circ(mathrmH_2O)>-\ &=left <8 extrm mol mathrmCO_2 imes213.8;mathrmJ/(molcdot K)>+<9 extrm mol mathrmH_2O imes188.8;mathrmJ/(molcdot K)> appropriate \ &-left <1 extrm mol mathrmC_8H_18 imes329.3;mathrmJ/(molcdot K)>+left appropriate \ &=515.3;mathrmJ/Kendalign

ΔS° is positive, as meant for a combustion reaction in which one big hydrocarbon molecule is converted to many kind of molecules of gaseous commodities.

Calculating ΔS from Thermodynamic Cycles

We can also calculate a adjust in entropy utilizing a thermodynamic cycle. As you learned formerly, the molar warm capacity (Cp) is the amount of warm required to raise the temperature of 1 mol of a substance by 1°C at continuous push. Similarly, Cv is the amount of warmth essential to raise the temperature of 1 mol of a substance by 1°C at consistent volume. The rise in entropy through enhancing temperature in Figure (PageIndex2) is about proportional to the warm capacity of the substance.

Recontact that the entropy change (ΔS) is related to warmth flow (qrev) by ΔS = qrev/T. Because qrev = nCpΔT at consistent press or nCvΔT at consistent volume, wright here n is the number of moles of substance present, the adjust in entropy for a substance whose temperature alters from T1 to T2 is as follows:

As you will certainly uncover in more progressed math courses than is required here, it can be displayed that this is equal to the following:For a testimonial of natural logarithms, view Essential Skills 6 in Chapter 11 "Liquids".


Therefore we have the right to usage a combination of heat capacity dimensions (Equation 18.20 or Equation 18.21) and also experimentally measured values of enthalpies of fusion or vaporization if a phase adjust is involved (Equation 18.18) to calculate the entropy readjust corresponding to a adjust in the temperature of a sample.

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We deserve to use a thermodynamic cycle to calculate the entropy adjust once the phase readjust for a substance such as sulfur cannot be measured straight. As listed in the exercise in Example 6, elepsychological sulhair exists in two develops (part (a) in Figure (PageIndex3)): an orthorhombic form via a very ordered framework (Sα) and a less-ordered monoclinic develop (Sβ). The orthorhombic (α) develop is even more secure at room temperature but undergoes a phase change to the monoclinic (β) form at temperatures higher than 95.3°C (368.5 K). The change from Sα to Sβ have the right to be defined by the thermodynamic cycle displayed in part (b) in Figure (PageIndex3), in which liquid sulfur is an intermediate. The change in entropy that accompanies the conversion of liquid sulfur to Sβ (−ΔSfus(β) = ΔS3 in the cycle) cannot be measured straight. Because entropy is a state function, yet, ΔS3 deserve to be calculated from the as a whole entropy adjust (ΔSt) for the Sα–Sβ shift, which equates to the sum of the ΔS values for the actions in the thermodynamic cycle, utilizing Equation 18.20 and also tabulated thermodynamic parameters (the warmth capacities of Sα and Sβ, ΔHfus(α), and the melting point of Sα.)

api/deki/files/65020/entropy_CT.png?revision=1&size=bestfit&width=421&height=258" />Figure (PageIndex4): Heat capitity/temperature as a role of temperature

The location under each section of the plot represents the entropy adjust connected via heating the substance with an interval ΔT. To this have to be added the enthalpies of melting, vaporization, and also of any type of solid-solid phase transforms. Values of Cp for temperatures near zero are not measured straight, but have the right to be approximated from quantum theory.