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The stomach has the ability to expand also or contract relying on the amount of food consisted of within it. When contracted, the internal wall surfaces develop plenty of folds (rugae), which disappear as soon as the walls are distfinished. The thick mucous-membrane lining of the walls is densely packed via small gastric glands; these secrete a mixture of enzymes and also hydrochloric acid that partly digest proteins and fats.

The stomach muscles are seldom inenergetic. Upon enattempt of food, they relax briefly, then start to contract. Periodic contractions churn and knead food right into a semifluid mixture called chyme; rhythmical pumping (peristaltic) waves relocate food toward the pylorus and also little intestine. Peristaltic contractions persist after the stomach empties and, increasing through time, might come to be painful. Such hunger pangs may also be pertained to the amount of sugar in the blood. If the level of sugar decreases substantially, hunger have the right to be proficient without the stomach’s treatment.


The absorption of food, water, and electrolytes by the stomach is virtually negligible, yet iron and highly fat-soluble substances such as alcohol and also some drugs are soaked up directly. Secretions and motions of the stomach are controlled by the vagus nerve and also the sympathetic nervous system; emotional stress can alter normal stomach attributes. Usual stomach disorders include peptic ulcer, cancer, and also gastritis.

Other animals

The stomachs of some various other animals differ substantially from that of humans; many kind of have actually multiple-chambered organs or unique adaptations. The stomachs of cows and also most cud-chewing (ruminant) pets are separated into four separate parts. Food is got first in the rumen, where mucus is included and also cellushed is damaged down. Next, it goes earlier to the mouth to be thoaround rechewed. When swpermitted aacquire, it is passed to the second and third chambers, the reticulum and also omasum, wright here water is extracted and absorbed. The food then goes to a last chamber, the abomasum, to obtain the digestive enzymes.

Birds have actually a three-chambered stomach: the first chamber, the chop, receives the food initially and also either stores or begins to moisten and also sregularly (macerate) it; the true stomach location adds digestive juices; and the gizzard, with its stones, or toothfavor frameworks, grinds the food.

Rodents have actually only one stomach area, and also many kind of need to eat their food twice before absorption takes area. Food is consumed and passed via the reduced digestive tract, wright here it is coated with metabolites to help break it dvery own. The fecal material is then re-consumed and also blended via extra food. Enzymes and water are removed from the once-passed material by the stomach and also offered to aid digest new nutritional substances. Dry fecal pelallows are finally excreted.

The starfish deserve to turn its stomach inside out and extrude it partly from the body to eat the soft contents of shelled pets such as clams. Camels and llamas can regurgitate their stomach contents and also spit this material at approaching adversaries. Crayfish develop stones of calcium salts in their stomach. These are stored until the animal sheds its external shell, when the stones are reabsorbed by the stomach and provided in developing a brand-new shell.

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The Editors of Encyclopaedia muzic-ivan.infoThis short article was most newly revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.