The D″ layer is a region of the mantle simply over the core wright here seismic velocity gradients are anomalously low (Helffaffluent & Wood, 2001; Loper & Lay, 1995; Young & Lay, 1987) (Figure 1.2). It is from this layer that the LLSVPs beneath Africa and the South Pacific aincrease (Figure 4.19). Estimates of the thickness of the D″ layer suggest that it arrays from 100 to around 400 kilometres. Calculations suggest that just a relatively little temperature gradient (1-3 °C/km) is necessary to conduct warmth from the core into the D″ layer. Because of diffractivity of seismic waves by the core, the resolution in this layer is not as excellent as at shalreduced mantle depths, and therefore details of its structure are not famous. However before, results suggest that D″ is a facility region that is both vertically and laterally heterogeneous, and that it is layered on a kilometer range in the reduced 50 km (Sidorin et al., 1999; Thybo et al., 2003). Data likewise indicate the presence of a significant solid-solid phase change about 200 kilometres above the core-mantle interconfront (Figures 4.21 and 4.22; Sidorin et al., 1999). The ULVZs just over the core-mantle boundary more than likely reflect areas through even more than 15% melt and feasible boosts in iron from core contamination.

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Figure 4.21. S-wave velocity circulation for various geographical areas in the lower mantle. Although many areas show a discontinuity near 2600 kilometres, the velocity prorecords show a good deal of lateral heterogeneity in this region.

(Data after Knittle and also Jeanloz (1991)).

Figure 4.22. Schematic diagram of possible structure in the lowermany mantle. (a) Geotherms (PPv, post-perovskite; Pv, perovskite (bridgmanite)); (b) Vs profiles; and also (c) feasible framework of the D″ layer. Gray area is the stcapability field of post-perovskite and daburned lines are geotherms from (a).

Tright here are 3 feasible contributions to the complex seismic structures checked out in D″: temperature variations, compositional transforms, and also mineralogical phase changes. Temperature variations are resulted in chiefly by slabs sinking into D″ (a cooling impact that produces reasonably rapid velocities) and also heat released from the core (bring about sluggish velocities). Subduction of oceanic crust additionally might provide rise to widespread heterogeneity in the mantle possibly extending right into the D″ layer. As an instance of lateral heterogeneity in D″, regions beneath Circum-Pacific subduction areas have actually anomalously quick P- and also S-waves, taken by many type of to reexisting lithospheric slabs that have sunk to the base of the mantle. Due to the fact that of the mineralogical distinctions in between basalt and ultramafic rocks at such high pressures, negative and positive jumps in seismic wave velocities are expected and this could explain some of the velocity variation in D″ (Ohta et al., 2008). Mixing of molten iron from the core with high-press silicates have the right to also result in compositional alters with equivalent velocity alters perhaps causing the ULVZs. Experiments have displayed, for circumstances, that when liquid iron comes in call via silicate perovskite at high pressures, these substances intensely react to develop a mixture of bridgmanite, a high-press silica polymorph, wustite (FeO), and also Fe silicide (FeSi) (Dubrovinsky et al., 2003; Knittle & Jeanloz, 1991). These experiments additionally indicate that liquid iron in the external core will certainly seep into D″ by capillary activity to numerous meters over the core-mantle boundary and that the reactions will certainly occur on timescales of less than 106 years.

The S-wave velocity discontinuity at around 2600 kilometres (Figure 4.21) might be brought about by a phase change, and also this phase change must have actually a positive Clapeyron slope of around > 6 MPa/°C (Sidorin et al., 1999). The verification of this transdevelopment by ultrahigh-pressure experiments in which bridgmanite inverts to a post-perovskite phase via a Clapeyron slope in the selection of 7-10 MPa/°C is remarkably consistent via the theoretical prediction (Oganova & Ono, 2004; Tschauner et al., 2014):

The post-perovskite phase is written of densely packed SiO6 octahedra sharing edges and corners to form sheets through layers of Mg and also Fe cations (Duffy, 2008).

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As pointed out in Chapter 1, the D″ layer is a thermal boundary layer in which warm is moved from the core to the mantle. Hence, like the lithospbelow upstairs, the D″ has a steep thermal gradient (i.e., a geotherm) in between the core and the convecting mantle. The big Clapeyron slope of the bridgmanite reaction, unchoose other reactions in the mantle, enables the phase boundary to be crossed by the geotherm at two depths (Hernlund et al., 2005; Figure 4.22). In fact, seismic migration techniques have revealed a pair of oppositely polarized discontinuities beneath Eurasia and the Caribbean areas, in excellent agreement via the predictions of the double-crossing thermal version. New high-pressure phases are synthesized in the laboratory eincredibly few years and also some of these might happen in the D″ layer. For circumstances, a phase change in silica together with the post-perovskite transition in subducted basaltic slabs may administer an alternative explanation for multiple seismic discontinuities observed in some regions of the D″ layer. The depth and also complexity of the boundary is dependent upon lateral transforms in temperature in D″ (Kawai & Tsuchiya, 2009). Three scenarios are displayed in Figure 4.22: (1) relatively cold mantle temperatures wbelow descfinishing plates accumulate give increase to a thick stcapability field for the post-perovskite phase, whereas in warmer areas, (2) the stability area is thinner, and also (3) for a hot regions, the geotherm may not intersect the phase boundary, and thus bridgmanite would certainly be secure all the method to core-mantle interchallenge. This may define why the seismic discontinuity is lacking in some regions. Because the low seismic wave velocities in D″ reflect high temperatures, hence a lowering of mantle viscosity, this layer is generally thshould be the source of some mantle plumes. The reduced viscosity will likewise boost the flow of material into the base of recently creating plumes, and also the lateral circulation into plumes will be well balanced by slow-moving subsidence of the overlying mantle.