Juxtaglomerular Apparatus or Complex is a dedicated region of a nephron wbelow the afferent arteriole and also Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) come in direct contact with each various other. Juxtaglomeruar Apparatus (JGA) consists of:

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1) Juxtaglomerular cells (modified smooth muscle cells) of afferent arteriole including renin containing (synthesizes and stores renin) and also sympathetically innervated granulated cells which function as mechanoreceptors to sense blood pressure.

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2) Macula densa cells (Na+ sensors) of Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) which function as chemoreceptors to sense alters in the solute concentration and flow rate of filtprice.

3) Juxtaglomerular/Extraglomerular mesangial cells (Lacis cells) forming connections via actin and microtubules which permit for selective vasoconstriction/vasodilation of the renal afferent and efferent arterioles with mesangial cell contraction.

Functions of Juxtaglomerlar Apparatus (JGA):

Local transmission of Tubuloglomerular Feedearlier (TGF) at its very own nephron by means of angiotensin II (AT II)Systemic manufacturing of Angiotensin II (AT II) as component of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)

Tubuloglomerular Feedback (TGF) Mechanism

The tubuloglomerular feedearlier device has 2 components that act together to regulate GFR:

Afferent arteriolar feedback mechanismEfferent arteriolar feedago mechanism

Increased renal arterial press leads to an raised shipment of liquid (increased osmolality or enhanced circulation rate) to the macula densa. The macula densa senses the fill and also reasons constriction of surrounding afferent arteriole, boosting the resistance. This will certainly rerevolve osmolality and also filtrate circulation rate to normal.

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Decreased renal arterial push leads to a decreased delivery of fluid (diminished osmolality or reduced flow rate) to the macula densa. The macula densa senses this and causes:

Vasodilation of afferent arterioleConstriction of efferent arteriole as a result of renin release by stimulated JG cells

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Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS)

When systemic blood pressure decreases, tright here is decreased stretch of JG cells, which leads to their release of renin. Renin release causes the activation of renin-angiotensin system, which ultimately leads to an increased blood pressure.

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