Ph.D., History, Boston UniversityJ.D., College of Washington School of LawB.A., History, Western Washington University
Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Eastern history and culture. She has taught at the high college and also university levels in the U.S. and South Korea.

You are watching: Which invention most contributed to the spread of both the ottoman and safavid empires


In the 15th and 16th centuries, 3 excellent powers developed in a band throughout western and southerly Asia. The Ottomale, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties established control over Turessential, Iran, and India respectively, in big component due to a Chinese invention: gunpowder.

In large component, the successes of the western empiresdepended on progressed weapons and also cannons. As a result, they are called the "Gunpowder Empires." This expression was coined by UNITED STATE historians Marshall G.S. Hodgboy (1922–1968) and Willian H. McNeill (1917–2016). The gunpowder realms monopolized the manufacture of guns and artillery in their areas. However before, the Hodgson-McNeill concept isn"t this day concerned as sufficient for the climb of these empires, however their use of the tools was integral to their military strategies.


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The Ottomale Realm in Turessential


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Jean-Francois Camp / AFP / Getty Images

The Safavid dynasty additionally took manage of Persia in the power vacuum that adhered to the decline of Timur"s empire. Unlike Turvital, where the Ottomans reasonably conveniently re-established control, Persia languimelted in chaos for around a century prior to Shah Ismail I (1487–1524) and also his "Red Head" (Qizilbash) Turks were able to defeat rival factions and reunite the country by about 1511.

The Safavids learned the value of firearms and artillery beforehand, from the neighboring Ottomans. After the Battle of Chaldiran, Shah Ismail developed a corps of musketeers, the tofangchi. By 1598, they had an artillery corps of cannons too. They properly combated the Uzbeks in 1528 making use of Janissary-choose methods versus the Uzbek mounties.

Safavid background is rife with clashes and wars between the Shi"a Muslim Safavid Persians and the Sunni Ottoman Turks. Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, yet they quickly closed the arms gap. The Safavid Empire lasted till 1736.


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The 3rd gunpowder empire, India"s Mughal Empire, offers possibly the the majority of dramatic instance of modern-day weaponry transferring the day. Babur (1483–1530), that founded the empire, was able to defeat Ibrahim Lodi (1459–1526) of the last Delhi Sultanate at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. Babur had actually the specialization of his commander Ustad Ali Quli, that coached the army via Ottoman methods.

Babur"s victorious Central Eastern army offered a combination of standard horse cavalry methods and also new-fangled cannons; the cannon fire spooked Lodi"s war-elephants, which turned and trampled their very own army in their hurry to escape the fearsome noise. After this victory, it was rare for any type of pressures to communicate the Mughals in a pitched battle.

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The Mughal Dynasty would certainly endure until 1857once the incoming British Raj deposed and also exiled the last emperor.