|Electrolytes are substances which, when liquified in water, break up intocations (plus-charged ions) and anions (minus-charged ions). We say they ionize.|
You are watching: Which of the following are strong electrolytes?
Strong electrolytes ionize completely (100%), while weak electrolytesionize only partially (generally on the order of 110%). That is, the primary speciesin solution for strong electrolytes are ions, while the primary specie in solution for weak electrolytes is the un-ionized compound itself.Strong electrolytes fall into 3 categories: strong acids,solid bases, and salts. (Salts are periodically also called ionic compounds, yet really strongbases are ionic compounds too.) The weak electrolytes incorporate weak acids and also weak bases.Examples of strong and also weak electrolytes are provided below:
|Strong Electrolytes||solid acids||HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, and H2SO4||strong bases||NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2||salts||NaCl, KBr, MgCl2, and many kind of, many more||Weak Electrolytes||weak acids||HF, HC2H3O2 (acetic acid), H2CO3 (carbonic acid), H3PO4 (phosphoric acid), and also many more||weak bases||NH3 (ammonia), C5H5N (pyridine), and also several more, all containing "N"|
Being Able to Classify Electrolytes Is CriticalAs chemists, we need to have the ability to look at a formula such as HCl or NaOH and also quickly knowwhich of these classifications it is in, bereason we must be able torecognize what we are functioning via (ions or compounds) as soon as we are working withchemicals. We should understand, for example, that a bottle labeled "NaCN" (a salt) really containsno NaCN, fairly Na+ and also CN, or that a bottle labeled "HCN" (a weak acid) is principally HCNthrough a small amount of H+ and also CN likewise existing. The difference in between simply opening a bottle labeled "HCN" and also one labeled "NaCN" might be your life, as HCN, or hydrogen cyanide, is a toxic gas, while CN, or cyanide ion, being an ion, isn"t a gas and is just transfered in solid or solution create. Nonetheless, it is cyanide ion, CN, that is the killer. (It locks onto the Fe3+ in hemoglobin, resulting in much less oxygen to acquire to your brain.) Cyanide is current in both bottles, and if it is transfered to your bloodstream either as CN or as HCN, it will kill you.
Six Steps for Categorizing ElectrolytesSo exactly how perform we categorize compounds based on their formula? One handy technique is outlined below:
|Tip 1||Is it one of the seven strong acids?||Step 2||Is it of the form Metal(OH)n? Then it"s a solid base.||Step 3||Is it of the form Metal(X)n? Then it"s a salt.||Tip 4||Does it"s formula begin via "H"? It"s probably a weak acid.||Tip 5||Does it have actually a nitrogen atom? It may be a weak base.|
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|Tip 6||None of those? Call it a nonelectrolyte.|