When formatting a document according to the APA Style rules, include a reference list rather than a bibliography or a works cited page (APA, n.d., para. 1). All recoverable resources cited in the text must be included in the reference list; likewise, all resources listed in the reference page must be cited within the text (APA, n.d., para. 2). Personal communication should not be included in the references because it doesn't provide recoverable data (APA, n.d., para. 3).

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The references should start on a new page in the document and the title of the page should be “References”, which should be centred and bolded at the top of the page (APA, 2020, p. 303).If only one reference appears on the page, the title should be “Reference”. Please see page 66 in the Annotated Student Paper, which is a resource provided by the APA, to view the correct formatting of the page title.Unless your program or instructor directs you to do otherwise, your references should be double spaced (APA, 2020, p. 303).

References should be listed alphabetically by the first listed author's last name (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 303). Format each reference with a hanging indent, which means that the first line of each reference entry is aligned flush with the left margin and each subsequent line has a hanging indent of 1.27 cm or 0.5 in (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 303). Please see page 66 in the Annotated Student Paper to view the correct formatting of references with hanging indents.The text must be able to wrap naturally; do not hit “enter” at the end of each line of information. To format a hanging indent, use the appropriate path for your version of Microsoft Word to access the Paragraph formatting options, and under "Indentation", choose “Hanging” under "Special" and set the indent under "By" to 0.5 in or 1.27 cm.


For more information regarding creating a reference list, please see pages 303-307 in the APA Style manual. For information on formatting references for specific types of resources, please search muzic-ivan.info by keyword(e.g., ebook, journal), see Reference Examples, and/or look up the relevant example in Chapter 9 of the APA manual. Please also see the APA Style References Checklist.


American Psychological Association. (n.d.).

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Works included in a reference list. APA Style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/works-included

American Psychological Association. (2020).Publication manual of the American Psychological Association(7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000