Author: Achudhan Karunaharamoorthy •Reviewer: Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhDLast reviewed: September 06, 2021Reading time: 4 minutes

The suprahyoid muscles are 4 muscles located between the mandible to the hyoid bone.

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With Each Other through nearby tworry they form the floor of the mouth.


Anatomy and also supply

Namely, the 4 suprahyoid muscles are the;

Mylohyoid muscle Geniohyoid muscle Stylohyoid muscle Digastric muscle

You deserve to remember them easily through the mnemonic "My Gut Seems Damaged".

Digastric muscle


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The digastric muscle is composed of two parts which are separated by an intermediate tendon. The anterior belly originates from the digastric fossa of mandible, the posterior belly from the mastoid notch of temporal bone. With Each Other they insert on the intermediate tendon.

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One specific feature of the digastric is that both bellies have various embryological origins. The anterior belly derives from the first pharyngeal arch and also is therefore innervated by a branch of the mandibular nerve (mylohyoid nerve). In contrast the posterior belly arises from the 2nd pharyngeal arch, which is why its nerve supply originates from the facial nerve.

Mylohyoid muscle


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The mylohyoid muscle runs from the mylohyoid line of mandible to a median tendon, known as the mylohyoid raphe, wbelow both parts of the muscle fulfill. The mylohyoid raphe proceeds its course and also inserts on the body of hyoid bone. The muscle is gave by the mylohyoid nerve from the mandibular nerve.

Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle has actually its beginning on the psychological spine at the internal surconfront of the mandible from wbelow it radiates to the body of hyoid. It is innervated by branches of the cervical plexus (C1-C2) accompanied by the hypoglossal nerve.

Stylohyoid muscle

The stylohyoid muscle exhas a tendency from the styloid procedure of tempdental bone to the body of hyoid bone. In its distal part the muscle divides right into two tendons. The muscle is supplied by the facial nerve.

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Neck viscera in situ mirroring digastric and also mylohyoid muscles.

Function

All suprahyoid muscles add to the floor of the mouth however the actual muscle plate which bridges in between the two rami of mandible is formed by the mylohyoid muscles (oral diaphragm).

From over the mouth floor is reincompelled by the geniohyoid muscles and from below by the anterior bellies of the digastric muscles. The oral diaphragm separates the sublingual area from the submandibular area. The only connect in between those two spaces is the connective tworry on the posterior part of the mylohyoid muscles.

The suprahyoid muscles do not only develop the floor of the mouth however play an important function in chewing, swenabling and also speech. In combination via the infrahyoid muscles, they are responsible for the placing of the hyoid bone.


In information, the digastric and also stylohyoid elevate the hyoid during swallowing and aid store the mouth open. The geniohyoid moves the hyoid forward and supports the opening and also lateral activity of the mandible. Even though the main function of the mylohyoid is to develop the dental diaphragm and also elevate the floor of the mouth, it can likewise assist in jaw opening and chewing activities. All in all, due to their contribution throughout mastication, the suprahyoid muscles are likewise referred to as accessory muscles of mastication.


Clinical note

Phlegmon of the floor of the mouth (Ludwig’s angina) constitutes a rare, yet dangerous complication from caries, gingivitis and tonsillitis.

Hereby, bacteria spread within the connective tconcern of the floor of the mouth and also throat bring about high fever before, painful swelling and also obstacles in swpermitting. Through the connective tworry of the mylohyoid muscles, the pathogens deserve to quickly migrate from the sublingual area to the submandibular area. The spreview with the para- and retropharyngeal spaces is especially feared as from tright here bacteria can enter the skull (cranially) or the mediastinum (caudally).


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Sjust how references

References:

D. Drenckhahn/J. Waschke: Taschenbuch Anatomie, first edition, Urban & Fischer Verlag/Elsevier (2008), p. 185-186T. Sadler: Medizinische Embryologie, 10th edition, Thieme Verlag (2003), p. 328-329W. Graumann/D. Sasse: CompactLehrbuch Band also 3 – Innere Organsysteme, Schattauer (2004), p. 25-26W. Graumann/D. Sasse: CompactLehrbuch Band 4 – Sinnessysteme, Haut, ZNS, Peripbelow Leitungsbahnen, Schattauer (2005), p. 453-454U. Reineke/R. Riemann: Facharztprüfung – Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Thieme Verlag (2007), p. 55W. Remmele: Pathologie – Band 2 – Verdauungstrakt, second edition, Springer-Verlag (1996), p. 15

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