5.7 Site Survey

A wireless site survey is a physical survey of the premises wbelow the wireless network will certainly be mounted. A site survey report helps visualize the wiremuch less netoccupational coverage areas and also data rates. Commercial tools are easily accessible that use actual dimensions to extrapolate and produce a coverage graph that mirrors signal toughness and also signal high quality at different locations of the site. In the easiest form of site survey, you have the right to walk through the facility with a handorganized spectrum analyzer and also measure the signal strength and feasible interferences. There are additionally prediction tools that use the structure floor plans and also wireless node proposed areas to predict the coverage mathematically instead of making use of actual dimensions.

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Wiremuch less Networking

Naomi J. Alpern, Robert J. Shimonski, in Eleventh Hour Network+, 2010

Protection Against MITM Thturbulent Rogue APS

Regular wiremuch less website surveys have the right to be offered to check out if someone has actually violated your company security policy by placing an unauthorized AP on the netjob-related, regardless of their intent. Frequent site surveys likewise have actually the advantage of uncovering the unauthorized APs that agency staff members may have actually set up in their very own work-related locations, thereby compromising the entire network-related and completely undoing the hard work-related that went into securing the network-related in the first place. This is usually done with no malicious intent, yet for the convenience of the user, that might want to be able to affix to the network-related via his or her lapheight in meeting rooms or break rooms or other areas that don't have wired outallows.

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URL: https://www.sciencestraight.com/science/article/pii/B978159749428100014X

An Architectural Deauthorize Approach

Anthony C. Caputo, in Digital Video Surveillance and Security (2nd Edition), 2014

Wiremuch less Site Survey

The purpose of a wireless site survey (see Figure 6.14) is to look at the feasibility of each individual wireless link to carry out seammuch less connectivity for netoperated video using a mesh netjob-related, Wi-Fi, cellular, or point-to-point high-bandwidth wireless backhaul. Although the process of performing a wireless website survey is explained in information in the following chapter, this section explains why a wiremuch less website survey is necessary, at least in part for line of sight, throughout the conceptual style phase and also what tasks and also jobs should be added right into the statement of occupational.

A wiremuch less website survey is broken right into numerous phases:


Pre-survey information


Networked video architecture considerations


Radio frequency spectrum analysis


Point-to-allude testing

Pre-Survey Information

Information gathered during the architectural style phase is a advantage to the last implementation. Unfortunately, regularly tright here are no as-builts of an existing network-related and/or wiremuch less facilities to build on, so, unless you’d like to depend on verbal testimonials of an architect, physical exploration is vital. Always confirm in writing any information gathered. This will go a long way when scope changes are required. The information that is gathered involves network-related use, termination points, frequency alplace, bandwidth, relicapacity, and scalcapability.

Figure 6.12 shows a diagram developed for a wiremuch less site survey based upon an inherited conceptual design. Originally, the design had 5 MP fixed camperiods, which mathematically compelled over 600 Mbps bandwidth for a wiremuch less backhaul framework designed via mesh netfunctioning radios, restricted to 150 Mbps throughput. This logical design was a very early reconstruction of that design, replacing the wireless backhaul between structures with a super-high-frequency full-duplex gigabit radio connect, however it still presented brand-new challenges. An iterative technique functioned out the kinks and also inevitably gave a superb wireless infrastructure that expanded the scope of the job (view Figure 6.13).

FIGURE 6.12. Early iteration logical design.

FIGURE 6.13. Final logical architecture.

Radio Frequency Spectrum Analysis

Interference from other wiremuch less tools is more than likely the biggest reason for wiremuch less network failures and also problems, either during initial deployment or when the network-related has been established. Monitoring while surveying via electronic tools uncovers overlapping frequencies. Remember that developing for video monitoring and physical defense is distinct. It’s not asynchronous, so if there’s a complaint about a slow-moving netoccupational link of slow-moving downpack speeds from reduced bandwidth due to interference, nothing is shed. It simply arrived later.

However before, through synchronous real-time video monitoring wright here each framework can potentially capture the identity of a perchild of interemainder, slow connectivity or lessened bandwidth suggests shed real-time information. A spectrum evaluation gives additional indevelopment throughout the architectural style phase to ensure that once operational, the recorded video archives accomplish the device needs. The next chapter discusses even more on radio frequencies and also spectrum evaluation.

A wiremuch less website survey report has the availability of any kind of licensed frequencies, any type of existing frequency consumption by various other agencies or service providers, and also, if crucial, occurring a shared channel arrangement plan.

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To conduct a wireless website survey you will certainly require a number of wireless network-related monitoring tools. This process can assist in the area of rogue devices and also in investigating possible breaches. The prevalent stperiods in this procedure consist of:


Passively scanning all networks within the ISM 2.4 and 5 GHz bands. The scan should ideally incorpoprice the entire band also consisting of any varieties that are not particularly identified for regional usage in a country and any proprietary modes. This phase requires the sampling of traffic. The scanner will tune briefly to a channel, test for website traffic and then hop to another channel. When the scanner is experimentation a certain channel, it cannot check out any type of various other channels and also will certainly overlook any traffic transmitted using an different channel.


To investigate a suspicious device discovered making use of a sdeserve to, configure the analyzer to monitor or capture packets on schosen channels or SSIDs. Monitor mode allows the analyzer to evaluate packets and discard any that perform not complement a filter in real-time. Record mode requires the analyzer to document packets that might be studying offline. Monitor mode is mainly offered to select the channel to emphasis on before founding a capture.


Once a channel to capture has actually been schosen the investigation may be concentrated through the definition of capture filters. These filters need to be configured for specific MAC addresses, IP addresses and traffic forms.


Once a suitable volume of web traffic has been captured, an examination of the data may be initiated in order to recognize if any type of units belonging to the company have actually connected to unauthorized APs. This can be done by checking if any kind of website traffic that has the organization's IP address range is being transmitted through the AP.


GPS might be provided to report the latitude and also longitude, loved one signal stamina of the rogue AP. It is also possible (though more time consuming) to simply walk in the direction that is correlated to an enhancing signal toughness.

When securing an AP, the initial stage involves changing the SSID to a value that is various from the manufacturer's default. Next off disable the broadspreading of the SSID. This is not a complete solution by any type of suggests, however many type of basic wireless scanners will fail to detect concealed SSIDs.

When “battle driving” or “battle walking”, the traditional procedure offered by the attacker is as follows:

Footprint the Wiremuch less Network. The process beings when a wireless netoccupational is uncovered. Next the attacker requirements to footprint the network making use of either an energetic or passive method.▪Passive Sniffing or monitoring. An attacker passively monitors web traffic in order to detect the visibility of an AP. This procedure will reveal any type of APs, SSIDs and STAs that are active without providing any proof of what they are doing.

Active Scanning. Active scanning needs the attacker to transmit a probe request configured with the SSID of the AP to check out if it responds. The SSID is frequently recorded via a process of sending a probe research configured via an empty SSID. As the majority of prevalent APs are collection to respond to a null SSID via the SSID they are configured via in a probe response packet, the attacker would certainly currently have actually the SSID. Most APs have the right to be configured to refuse (and log) probe requests that contain empty SSIDs. It is a great idea to configure all APs in this manner.

Brute Force Attack. The fregulations in the implementation of security protocols such as WEP make it possible for an attacker to collect adequate data to crack the key offline. Once the key is cracked, the attacker has actually access to the network. Controls such as MAC filtering are not effective as the MAC deal with is transmitted in the clear and also can be conveniently extracted from captures built up making use of passive packet security.

Using Maps to Document Wireless Signal Leakage

Many WLAN adapters are provided through “website survey” utilities. These are beneficial in that they enable for the spot-checking of signal stamina, quality, and loss. A thorough site survey calls for more use than a client utility alone can provide.

Tright here are a variety of more progressed wiremuch less site survey systems easily accessible. These may be sourced from both hardware (e.g., Aireroom, Nortel, Trapeze) and software sellers (e.g., AirMagnet, BVS, Connect802, Ekahau, VisiWave). Tright here are also numerous GPLd products easily accessible (e.g. KISMET, NetStumbler) that carry out this level of usability. Site survey utilities help in the architecture of WLANs through the provision of area dimensions that permit for the plotting of radio coverage by signal toughness which is then shown on a floor setup. This enables the designer to predict signal, noise, data price, and also capacity before deploying a solution. Impediments, wall surfaces, ceiling height, other APs, and also sources of interference deserve to be modeled permitting the production of a style that incorporates AP placement, power output, and also channel assignments.

Selected WLAN analyzers (such as AirMagnet) encompass the capcapability to automate the website survey (see Figure 12.1). AirMagnet deserve to capture measurements to file as quickly as a specific event transpires. This deserve to encompass alters in association state, signal stamina, or the transmission data price. It additionally allows the recording of data based on being relocated at a continuous speed connecting 2 points, recording measurements at precharacterized intervals.


Site survey devices deserve to likewise sell even more advanced features including active surveys, what-if simulations, and automated AP reconfiguration.

Interference in Wiremuch less Networks

RF interference involves the existence of various other (then yours) RF signals that interfere through and also disrupt device procedure. As 802.11 deserve to be effected by an interfering RF signal of enough amplitude and frequency or rogue AP have the right to transmit packet false packets. These problems cause any legitimate 802.11 traffic being interrupted until the interfering signal is rerelocated.

The interfering signal doesn't have to abide by the 802.11 protocol.

Sources of RF Interference

With 2.4 GHz wireless LANs (such as 802.11b) many resources of interfering signals can occur. Some of these are microwave ovens, cordmuch less telephones, Bluetooth permitted gadgets, and various other wireless LANs that are sharing the very same or overlapping networks. 2.4 GHz cordless telephones are one of the biggest causes of interference (and some of these are additionally currently operating in the 5 GHz bands). A cordmuch less telephone that is in relatively cshed (10 to 25 meters) of an 802.11b wiremuch less LAN will certainly seriously interfere through WLAN performance.

Microwave ovens operating within 3 to 5 meters an 802.11 enabled tools or AP will interfere through its performance. Bluetooth allowed devices degrade the performance if in close proximately to 802.11 stations. WLANs belonging to various other organizations and world can additionally interfere if the networks are overlapping.

Avoiding RF Interference

It is hard to prevent RF interference unmuch less you are located in the country through no other organizations around for miles. Some considerations that can help are covered below:


Analyze the potential for RF interference. Do this before installing the wireless LAN by perdeveloping an RF website survey making use of devices we've questioned in a previous write-up. Also, talk to world within the facility and also learn about various other RF devices that might be in use.


Proccasion the interfering resources from operating. Once you know the potential resources of RF interference, you could remove them by sindicate turning them off. This is the best method to respond to RF interference; yet, it's not always valuable. For example, you can't tell the firm in the office area alongside you to shut off their wireless LAN; yet, you could be able to dispermit the usage of Bluetooth-enabled tools or microwave ovens wbelow your 802.11 users reside.


Provide sufficient wiremuch less LAN coverage. One of the finest remedies for 802.11b RF interference is to encertain the wireless LAN has actually solid signals throughout the locations wright here individuals will certainly reside. If wiremuch less LAN signals acquire as well weak, then interfering signals will be more troublesome. Of course this implies doing a thoturbulent RF website survey to recognize the the majority of efficient number and also placement of accessibility point.


Set configuration parameters effectively. If you're deploying 802.11b networks, then tune access points to channels that prevent the frequencies of interfering signals. This might not always work, but it's worth a try. For 802.11 frequency hopping devices, attempt various hopping fads. By the means, the more recent 802.11e MAC layer, slated for availcapacity at some time in 2002, provides some built-in RF interference avoidance algorithms.

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Deploy the newer 802.11a wiremuch less LANs. Most potential for RF interference this day is in the 2.4 GHz band (i.e., 802.11b). If you find that various other interference avoidance approaches don't work-related well enough, then think about deploying 802.11a networks. At least for the foreseeable future, you have the right to protect against substantial RF interference in 802.11a's 5 GHz band also. You'll likewise get a lot higher throughput; however, the restricted selection needs added access points and greater prices.