Inventor and also Scientist

In 1876, at the age of 29, Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone. In 1877, he created the Bell Telephone Company, and in the exact same year married Mabel Hubbard and also carried out a yearlengthy honeymoon in Europe.

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Alexander Graham Bell"s design sketch of the telephone. Sketches, undated; handcreated message peak and bottom of page, 1876. Box 273, "Subject File: The Telephone--Drawing of the Telephone, Bell"s Original" Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, Manumanuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Bell might conveniently have actually been content via the success of his invention. His many kind of laboratory notebooks show, however, that he was driven by a real and rare intellectual curiosity that retained him frequently browsing, striving, and wanting always to learn and to produce. He would continue to test out brand-new ideas with a long and productive life. He would certainly explore the realm of communications and also engage in a great array of scientific activities entailing kites, airplanes, tetrahedral structures, sheep-breeding, fabricated respiration, desalinization and also water distillation, and also hydrofoils.

With the substantial technical and later on financial success of his telephone invention, Bell"s future was secure, and he had the ability to arvariety his life so that he can devote himself to his clinical interests. Toward this finish, in 1881, he provided the $10,000 award for winning France"s Volta Prize to put up the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. A believer in clinical participation, Bell functioned via 2 associates, his cousin Chichester Bell and also Charles Sumner Tainter, at the Volta Laboratory. Their experiments soon created such major improvements in Thomas Edison"s phonograph that it ended up being commercially viable. After 1885, once he first checked out Nova Scotia, Bell set up an additional laboratory tright here at his estate, Beinn Bhreagh (pronounced Ben Vreeah), near Baddeck, wright here he would certainly assemble various other groups of bideal young engineers to seek new and also interesting principles.

Among one of his first developments after the telephone was the "photophone," a maker that allowed sound to be transmitted on a beam of light. Bell and also his assistant, Charles Sumner Tainter, occurred the photophone making use of a sensitive selenium crystal and also a mirror that would vibrate in response to a sound. In 1881, they effectively sent a photophone message over 200 yards from one structure to one more. Bell regarded the photophone as "the biggest development I have actually ever before made; greater than the telephone." Bell"s development reveals the principle upon which today"s laser and also fiber optic communication systems are founded, though it would take the development of a number of modern technologies to realize it totally.

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Alexander Graham Bell"s Lay out of a vacuum jacket in usage. Box 273, "Subject File: Drawings by Alexander Graham Bell, 1881-1911" Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, Manuscript Division , Library of Congress.

Over the years, Bell"s curiosity would certainly lead him to speculate on the nature of heredity, initially among the deaf and later on through lamb born with hereditary irregularities. His sheep-reproduction experiments at Beinn Bhreagh smust boost the numbers of twin and triplet births. Bell was likewise willing to attempt inventing under the press of everyday events, and in 1881 he hastily created an electromagnetic tool referred to as an induction balance to attempt and also situate a bullet lodged in President Gararea after an assassin had shot him. He later on improved this and also created a device referred to as a telephone probe, which would certainly make a telephone receiver click once it touched steel. That very same year, Bell"s newborn child, Edward, died from respiratory difficulties, and Bell responded to that tragedy by developing a metal vacuum jacket that would facilitate breathing. This apparatus was a forerunner of the iron lung used in the 1950s to aid polio victims. In enhancement to inventing the audiometer to detect minor hearing troubles and conducting experiments via what now are called power recycling and alternative fuels, Bell additionally functioned on approaches of removing salt from seawater.

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Photo of the June Bug. Box 148, "Subject File: Aviation--The Silver Dart" Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, Manumanuscript Division , Library of Congress.

However, these interests may be taken into consideration minor activities compared to the moment and also effort he put right into the difficulty of flight. By the 1890s, Bell had actually begun trying out through propellers and also kites. His job-related led him to use the principle of the tetrahedron (a solid number via 4 triangular faces) to kite architecture and to produce a brand-new form of architecture. In 1907, four years after the Wright Brothers first flew at Kitty Hawk, Bell created the Aerial Experiment Association via Glenn Curtiss, William "Casey" Baldwin, Thomas Selfridge, and also J.A.D. McCurdy, 4 young designers whose prevalent goal was to create airborne vehicles. By 1909, the group had created 4 powered aircraft, the finest of which, the Silver Dart, made the first effective powered trip in Canada on February 23, 1909. Bell spent the last decade of his life enhancing hydrofoil deindications, and in 1919 he and also Casey Baldwin constructed a hydrofoil that collection a world water-rate document that was not damaged till 1963. Months prior to he died, Bell told a reporter, "There cannot be psychological atrophy in any kind of perchild who proceeds to observe, to remember what he observes, and also to look for answers for his unceasing hows and whys about things."