Learning Objectives

Identify ways to differ sentence framework.Write and revise sentence structure at the start of sentences.Write and revise sentence framework by connecting ideas.

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Have you ever ordered a dish in a restaurant and also been not happy via its taste, even though it had a lot of of your favorite ingredients? Just as a meal might lack the finishing touches essential to spice it up, so too can a paragraph contain all the basic components however still absence the stylistic finesse compelled to connect a reader. Sometimes writers have a propensity to reuse the same sentence pattern throughout their creating. Like any kind of recurring job, analysis text that has as well many kind of sentences through the same size and also framework have the right to become monotonous and also boring. Experienced authors mix it up by making use of an assortment of sentence patterns, rhythms, and lengths.

In this chapter, you will certainly follow a student named Naomi that has written a draft of an essay but requirements to refine her composing. This area discusses exactly how to introduce sentence variety into writing, just how to open up sentences utilizing a range of approaches, and also exactly how to usage different types of sentence structure once connecting ideas. You can usage these techniques when revising a paper to lug life and rhythm to your work-related. They will certainly also make analysis your work-related even more enjoyable.


Incorporating Sentence Variety

Experienced authors incorporate sentence array right into their creating by varying sentence style and also framework. Using a mixture of different sentence frameworks reduces repetition and adds emphasis to important points in the message. Read the following example:


During my time in office I have achieved numerous purposes. I have actually helped boost resources for regional schools. I have diminished crime prices in the area. I have encouraged young people to acquire affiliated in their neighborhood. My competitor says that she is the better choice in the upcoming election. I argue that it is ridiculous to deal with somepoint that isn’t broken. If you reelect me this year, I promise to proceed to serve this community.


In this extract from an election campaign, the writer supplies short, simple sentences of a similar size and also style. Writers regularly mistakenly believe that this approach makes the message more clear for the reader, yet the result is a choppy, uninnovative paragraph that does not grab the audience’s attention. Now review the revised paragraph through sentence variety:


Throughout my time in office, I have aided boost capital for neighborhood colleges, lessened crime prices in the community, and urged young civilization to acquire affiliated in their community. Why fix what isn’t broken? If you reelect me this year, I will certainly proceed to accomplish excellent things for this area. Don’t take a chance on an unwell-known contender; vote for the prcooktop success.


Notice how presenting a brief rhetorical question among the much longer sentences in the paragraph is an reliable means of keeping the reader’s attention. In the revised variation, the writer combines the choppy sentences at the beginning right into one longer sentence, which adds rhythm and interemainder to the paragraph.


Tip

Effective authors often implement the “rule of three,” which is basically the thought that things that contain three facets are more memorable and more satisfying to readers than any type of various other number. Try to use a collection of 3 as soon as providing examples, grouping adjectives, or generating a list.


Exercise 1

Combine each set of simple sentences right into a compound or a complex sentence. Write the combined sentence on your very own sheet of paper.

Heroin is a very addictive drug. Thousands of heroin addicts die every year.Shakespeare’s writing is still pertinent today. He composed around timemuch less themes. These themes include love, hate, jealousy, death, and destiny.Gay marital relationship is currently legal in 6 claims. Iowa, Massachusetts, Connectireduced, Vermont, New Hampshire, and also Maine all permit same-sex marital relationship. Other claims are most likely to follow their example.Precreating is a critical phase of the writing process. Prewriting helps you organize your ideas. Types of prewriting include outlining, brainstorming, and also principle mapping.Mitch Bancroft is a famous writer. He likewise serves as a governor on the local institution board. Mitch’s 2 youngsters attfinish the college.

Collaboration

Please share via a classmate and compare your answers.


Using Sentence Variety at the Beginning of Sentences

Read the following sentences and think about what they all have in common:


John and also Amanda will certainly be analyzing this week’s financial report.

The auto screeched to a halt simply a few inches ameans from the young boy.

Students hardly ever involved the exam adequately all set.


If you are having trouble figuring out why these sentences are equivalent, try underlining the subject in each. You will certainly alert that the subject is positioned at the start of each sentence—John and Amanda, the car, students. Since the subject-verb-object pattern is the simplest sentence framework, many type of writers tend to overuse this approach, which deserve to result in recurring paragraphs via little bit sentence variety.

Naomi composed an essay about the 2008 federal government bailout. Read this excerpt from Naomi’s essay:


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This section examines a number of methods to introduce sentence range at the beginning of sentences, making use of Naomi’s essay as an instance.


Starting a Sentence through an Adverb

One technique you can use so regarding prevent start a sentence via the topic is to use an adverb. An adverb is a word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and also frequently ends in –ly. Examples of adverbs include quickly, softly, quietly, angrily, and timidly. Read the complying with sentences:


She progressively turned the corner and peered right into the murky basement.

Slowly, she turned the corner and also peered into the murky basement.


In the second sentence, the adverb slowly is inserted at the beginning of the sentence. If you review the two sentences aloud, you will alert that relocating the adverb changes the rhythm of the sentence and also slightly alters its definition. The second sentence emphasizes exactly how the topic moves—slowly—developing a buildup of anxiety. This strategy is reliable in fictional composing.

Keep in mind that an adverb used at the start of a sentence is generally followed by a comma. A comma indicates that the reader need to pausage briefly, which creates a useful rhetorical device. Read the following sentences aloud and take into consideration the result of pautilizing after the adverb:


Cautiously, he unlocked the kennel and waited for the dog’s reaction.

Solemnly, the policemale approached the mayor and put him under arrest.

Suddenly, he slammed the door shut and spublished across the street.


In an scholastic essay, moving an adverb to the beginning of a sentence serves to differ the rhythm of a paragraph and rise sentence variety.


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Naomi has actually provided 2 adverbs in her essay that might be moved to the beginning of their particular sentences. Notice just how the adhering to revised variation creates a more differed paragraph:



Tip

Adverbs of time—adverbs that indicate when an activity takes place—do not constantly need a comma once offered at the start of a sentence. Adverbs of time include words such as yesterday, today, later, sometimes, often, and also now.


Exercise 2

On your very own sheet of paper, rewrite the adhering to sentences by moving the adverbs to the beginning.

The red truck sped furiously previous the camper van, blaring its horn.Jeff snatched at the bcheck out hungrily, sprucing up off three slices in under a minute.Underage drinking generally outcomes from peer press and absence of parental attention.The firefighters bravely tackled the blaze, yet they were beaten earlier by flames.Mayor Johnson privately recognized that the budget was extreme and that better discussion was necessary.

Collaboration

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Starting a Sentence via a Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase is a team of words that behaves as an adjective or an adverb, editing a noun or a verb. Prepositional phrases contain a preplace (a word that mentions location, direction, or time) and also an item of the preplace (a noun phrase or pronoun that adheres to the preposition).


Table 7.1 Usual Prepositions

abovebeneathintotill
acrossbesideliketoward
againstbetweennearunder
afterbeyondoffunderneath
amongbyonuntil
arounddespiteoverup
atexceptpastwith
beforeforsincewithout
behindfromthrough
belowinsidethroughout

In this sentence, the prepositional phrase is underneath the table. The preplace underneath relates to the object that follows the preposition—the table. Adjectives might be placed between the preposition and the object in a prepositional phrase.


Some prepositional phrases can be moved to the start of a sentence in order to develop range in a piece of writing. Look at the following revised sentence:


Notice that as soon as the prepositional phrase is moved to the start of the sentence, the emphasis shifts from the subject—the terrified child—to the area in which the child is hiding. Words that are placed at the beginning or end of a sentence mainly obtain the best emphasis. Take a look at the following examples. The prepositional expression is underlined in each:


The bandaged man waited in the doctor’s office.

In the doctor’s office, the bandaged male waited.

My train leaves the terminal at 6:45 a.m.

At 6:45 a.m., my train leaves the terminal.

Teenagers exreadjust drugs and also money under the railmethod bridge.

Under the railway bridge, teenagers exchange drugs and money.


Prepositional phrases are advantageous in any form of writing. Take one more look at Naomi’s essay on the government bailout.




The underlined words are all prepositional phrases. Notice how they include extra information to the message and carry out a sense of flow to the essay, making it less choppy and also even more pleasurable to read.

Unmovable Prepositional Phrases

Not all prepositional phrases deserve to be placed at the beginning of a sentence. Read the complying with sentence:


In this sentence, without whipped cream is the prepositional phrase. Since it defines the cacao sundae, it cannot be moved to the start of the sentence. “Without whipped cream I would favor a cocoa sundae” does not make as much (if any) sense. To recognize whether a prepositional expression have the right to be moved, we need to identify the interpretation of the sentence.

Overusage of Prepositional Phrases

Experienced writers frequently include more than one prepositional phrase in a sentence; yet, it is vital not to overload your composing. Using as well many type of modifiers in a paragraph might produce an unintentionally comical result as the complying with example shows:


The treacertain lay hidden under the old oak tree, behind the crumbling fifteenth-century wall, close to the schoolyard, wbelow youngsters played merrily during their lunch hour, unaware of the riches that remained surprise beneath their feet.


A sentence is not necessarily efficient just because it is long and facility. If your sentence shows up cluttered via prepositional phrases, divide it into 2 shorter sentences. The previous sentence is far even more efficient once composed as two easier sentences:


The treasure lay buried under the old oak tree, behind the crumbling fifteenth-century wall. In the nearby schoolyard, children played merrily in the time of their lunch hour, unmindful of the wide range that continued to be hidden beneath their feet.


Writing at Work

The overusage of prepositional phrases regularly occurs when our thoughts are jumbled and we are uncertain exactly how principles or ideas relate to one one more. If you are preparing a report or a proposal, take the moment to organize your thoughts in an outline prior to creating a rough draft. Read the draft aloud, either to yourself or to a colleague, and also identify locations that are rambling or unclear. If you notice that a particular component of your report has numerous sentences over twenty words, you have to double examine that certain area to make particular that it is coherent and also does not contain unvital prepositional phrases. Reading aloud periodically helps detect unclear and also wordy sentences. You have the right to additionally ask a colleague to paraexpression your major points to encertain that the meaning is clear.


Starting a Sentence by Inverting Subject and also Verb

As we noted earlier, a lot of writers follow the subject-verb-object sentence framework. In an inverted sentence, the order is reversed so that the topic adheres to the verb. Read the following sentence pairs:


Notice just how the second sentence in each pair locations even more focus on the subject—a truck in the initially instance and also the file in the second. This strategy is helpful for illustration the reader’s attention to your main area of focus. We have the right to apply this approach to an academic essay. Take an additional look at Naomi’s paragraph.


To emphadimension the subject in particular sentences, Naomi have the right to invert the standard sentence structure. Read her revised paragraph:


Notice that in the first underlined sentence, the subject (some economists) is inserted after the verb (argued). In the second underlined sentence, the topic (the government) is placed after the verb (expects).


Exercise 3

On your very own sheet of paper, recreate the adhering to sentences as inverted sentences.

Teresa will certainly never before attempt to run an additional marathon.A thorough project summary is enclosed through this letter.Bathroom facilities are across the hall to the left of the water cooler.The well-dressed stranger stumbled with the doormeans.My colleagues reprimary unpersuaded about the proposed merger.

Collaboration

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Connecting Ideregarding Increase Sentence Variety

Reviewing and recomposing the beginning of sentences is an excellent means of introducing sentence variety right into your composing. Another useful technique is to attach two sentences making use of a modifier, a relative clause, or an appositive. This area examines how to attach ideas throughout a number of sentences in order to rise sentence array and also enhance composing.


Joining Ideas Using an –ing Modifier

Sometimes it is possible to combine 2 sentences by converting among them into a modifier utilizing the –ing verb form—singing, dancing, swimming. A modifier is a word or expression that qualifies the definition of one more element in the sentence. Read the adhering to example:


Initial sentences: Steve checked the computer system system. He discovered a virus.

Revised sentence: Checking the computer device, Steve discovered a virus.


To attach 2 sentences utilizing an –ing modifier, include –ing to one of the verbs in the sentences (checking) and delete the topic (Steve). Use a comma to separate the modifier from the subject of the sentence. It is vital to make sure that the primary principle in your revised sentence is had in the primary clausage, not in the modifier. In this instance, the primary idea is that Steve found a virus, not that he checked the computer device.

In the complying with example, an –ing modifier indicates that two actions are arising at the very same time:


Noticing the police auto, she shifted gears and slowed dvery own.

This means that she slowed dvery own at the very same time she noticed the police auto.

Barking loudly, the dog ran across the drivemeans.

This means that the dog barked as it ran across the drivemethod.


You can add an –ing modifier to the beginning or the end of a sentence, depending upon which fits ideal.


Beginning: Conducting a survey among her friends, Amanda found that few were happy in their jobs.

End: Maria filed the final report, meeting her deadline.


Dangling Modifiers

A prevalent mistake as soon as combining sentences making use of the –ing verb form is to misarea the modifier so that it is not logically connected to the remainder of the sentence. This creates a dangling modifier. Look at the complying with example:


In this sentence, jogging throughout the parking lot appears to modify my breath. Due to the fact that breath cannot jog, the sentence must be recreated so that the topic is placed immediately after the modifier or added to the dangling expression.


For more information on dangling modifiers, watch Chapter 2 “Writing Basics: What Makes a Good Sentence?”.


Joining Ideas Using an –ed Modifier

Some sentences can be linked using an –ed verb form—stopped, finished, played. To usage this strategy, among the sentences need to contain a type of be as a helping verb in enhancement to the –ed verb develop. Take a look at the adhering to example:


Initial sentences: The Jones household was delayed by a traffic jam. They arrived several hours after the party began.

Revised sentence: Delayed by a website traffic jam, the Jones household arrived several hours after the party began.


In the original variation, was acts as a helping verb—it has actually no definition by itself, but it serves a grammatical attribute by placing the main verb (delayed) in the perfect tense.

To affix two sentences using an –ed modifier, drop the helping verb (was) and also the topic (the Jones family) from the sentence with an –ed verb develop. This forms a modifying expression (delayed by a traffic jam) that have the right to be added to the beginning or finish of the various other sentence according to which fits ideal. Just like the –ing modifier, be careful to location the word that the phrase modifies immediately after the phrase in order to stop a dangling modifier.

Using –ing or –ed modifiers can help streamline your writing by illustration evident relations in between two sentences. Take a look at how Naomi could use modifiers in her paragraph.


The revised variation of the essay supplies the –ing modifier opting to draw a connection in between the government’s decision to bail out the banks and also the outcome of that decision—the acquisition of the mortgage-backed securities.


Joining Ideas Using a Relative Clause

Anvarious other strategy that writers usage to integrate sentences is to join them utilizing a relative clausage. A relative clausage is a team of words that consists of a subject and also a verb and also defines a noun. Relative claprovides function as adjectives by answering inquiries such as which one? or what kind? Relative clasupplies begin with a relative pronoun, such as who, which, where, why, or when. Read the complying with examples:


Original sentences: The regulating director is visiting the firm following week. He lives in Seattle.

Revised sentence: The managing director, that resides in Seattle, is visiting the firm following week.


To affix two sentences using a loved one clause, substitute the topic of among the sentences (he) for a family member pronoun (who). This gives you a relative clausage (that resides in Seattle) that deserve to be placed alongside the noun it describes (the controlling director). Make certain to keep the sentence you desire to emphasize as the primary clause. For example, reversing the primary clausage and also subordinate clausage in the coming before sentence emphasizes where the controlling director lives, not the reality that he is visiting the agency.


Relative claprovides are a useful means of giving additional, noncrucial information in a sentence. Take a look at exactly how Naomi might incorpoprice family member clasupplies right into her essay.


Notice how the underlined family member claprovides deserve to be removed from Naomi’s essay without transforming the definition of the sentence.


Tip

To check the punctuation of relative clasupplies, assess whether or not the clausage deserve to be taken out of the sentence without changing its definition. If the loved one clausage is not vital to the definition of the sentence, it have to be placed in commas. If the relative clausage is important to the interpretation of the sentence, it does not require commas around it.


Joining Ideas Using an Appositive

An appositive is a word or group of words that explains or renames a noun or pronoun. Incorporating appositives right into your composing is a beneficial method of combining sentences that are too short and also choppy. Take a look at the adhering to example:


Original sentences: Harland also Sanders began serving food for hungry travelers in 1930. He is Colonel Sanders or “the Colonel.”

Revised sentence: Harland also Sanders, “the Colonel,” started serving food for hungry travelers in 1930.


In the revised sentence, “the Colonel” is an appositive because it renames Harland also Sanders. To combine 2 sentences using an appositive, drop the subject and verb from the sentence that renames the noun and turn it into a phrase. Keep in mind that in the previous example, the appositive is positioned instantly after the noun it explains. An appositive may be placed anywhere in a sentence, however it must come straight before or after the noun to which it refers:


Appositive after noun: Scott, a poorly trained athlete, was not intended to win the race.

Appositive before noun: A poorly trained athlete, Scott was not intended to win the race.


Unfavor loved one claoffers, appositives are constantly punctuated by a comma or a set commas. Take a look at the means Naomi uses appositives to encompass added facts in her essay.


Exercise 4

On your very own sheet of paper, recompose the following sentence pairs as one sentence utilizing the approaches you have learned in this section.

Baby sharks are called pups. Pups can be born in among three methods.The Pacific Ocean is the world’s biggest ocean. It exhas a tendency from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the southern.Michael Phelps won eight gold medals in the 2008 Olympics. He is a champion swimmer.Ashley introduced her colleague Dan to her husband also, Jim. She speculated that the two of them would certainly have a lot in widespread.Cacao is harvested by hand. It is then offered to chocolate-processing providers at the Coffee, Sugar, and Cocoa Exadjust.

Collaboration

Please share through a classmate and also compare your answers.


Writing at Work

In enhancement to differing sentence structure, think about varying the kinds of sentences you are making use of in a report or various other worklocation record. Many sentences are declarative, however a closely placed question, exclamation, or command also can pique colleagues’ interemainder, even if the subject product is sensibly dry. Imagine that you are creating a budacquire analysis. Beginning your report with a rhetorical question, such as “Wright here is our money going?” or “How have the right to we boost sales?” motivates world to continue reading to uncover out the answers. Although they must be used sparingly in academic and also professional creating, inquiries or regulates are reliable rhetorical gadgets.

See more: How Do You Say Mischievous In Spanish ? ˈMɪs Tʃə Vəs ˈMɪs Tʃə Vəs


Key Takeaways

Sentence selection reduces repetition in a piece of creating and adds emphasis to vital points in the text.Sentence range deserve to be presented to the start of sentences by founding a sentence via an adverb, beginning a sentence with a prepositional expression, or by inverting the subject and verb.Combine principles, making use of modifiers, relative clasupplies, or appositives, to attain sentence range.