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RUN-ON SENTENCES AND COMMA SPLICES

Run-on sentences have the right to be split right into two kinds. The first occurs when a writer puts no mark of punctuation and also no coordinating conjunction in between independent clasupplies. The second is dubbed a comma splice, which occurs as soon as two or more independent claoffers are joined by just a comma and no coordinating conjunction.

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Example of a run-on sentence:

The flowers are beautiful they brighten the room. (Incorrect)

Example of a comma splice:

The flowers are beautiful, they brighten the room. (Incorrect)

Examples of correct alternatives:

The flowers are beautiful. They brighten the room.The flowers are beautiful; they brighten the room.The flowers are beautiful, and also they brighten the room.The flowers are beautiful because they brighten the room.

A run-on sentence is not defined by its length! The truth that a sentence is incredibly long does not instantly make it a run-on sentence. As you will view, the sentence framework and use of punctuation recognize whether a sentence is a run-on.

In order to much better understand run-on sentences and comma splices, it is important to review the basics of creating a grammatically correct straightforward sentence:

A basic sentence is comprised of only one independent clausage. An independent clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and creates a finish thought once standing alone. The topic describes someone or something (the topic has at least one noun or pronoun). The predicate refers to what the subject does or is (the predicate has the verb or verbs).Both the subject and predicate deserve to contain extra descriptive aspects, such as adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, or other editing and enhancing phrases, but in its many fundamental create the topic is the component of the sentence that contains the noun, and the predicate consists of the verb.

A sentence have the right to be complete and correct through one basic independent clausage consisted of of one topic plus its equivalent predicate. To show the fundamental structure of an easy sentence, find the noun that creates the topic and divide it from the verb.

SubjectPredicateSentence
Iam.I am.
The manstupassed away.The guy studied.
A frogjumped.A frog jumped.
Lolasings.Lola sings.

By dividing the noun and verb, we have the right to include modifiers to a simple sentence and still see the two standard parts, the subject and the predicate.

SubjectPredicate
The manstupassed away.
The sort manstudied hard.
The sort male at the librarystudied difficult for the test on Friday.

When looking at the structure of an independent clausage, it is helpful to think of all aspects of the subject separately from all facets of the predicate. Together the topic and predicate develop the two standard and separate components of each clausage.

SubjectPredicate
The kind man and his wifestudied difficult for the test and also read a book.
The male, his wife, and also their childstupassed away tough, check out publications, and ate dinner.

If the independent clause develops a complete believed, a duration at the end demonstprices that the sentence is finish. The period means STOP. The sentence has ended, and also a new sentence will certainly start.

Run-ons and comma splices take place when more than one subject/predicate pair exists in the sentence. When one subject/predicate pair is adhered to by a second subject/predicate pair within one sentence (forming sepaprice independent clauses), they must be separated (or joined) according to incredibly particular rules of punctuation and also grammar.

Look at the complying with example of a run-on sentence:

The type man studied hard his wife check out a book. (Incorrect)

If we divide the sentence into subject/predicate pairs (each an independent clause), we see that 2 independent claoffers exist, one complying with the other:

First independent clauseSecond independent clause
SubjectPredicateSubjectPredicate
The sort manstupassed away hardhis wiferead a book.

Without the correct separation, the 2 independent claoffers created together develop a run-on sentence. Once you can identify a run-on sentence by its incorrect framework, it is not difficult to uncover a way to correct it.

When 2 independent clasupplies appear in one sentence, they need to be joined (or separated) in among four ways:

1.The two clasupplies have the right to be made right into two sepaprice sentences by adding a period.

2.The two claoffers have the right to be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (comma plus: and, yet, or, nor, for, so, yet).

3.The two clasupplies have the right to be joined by a semicolon.

4.The two clasupplies have the right to be recomposed by including, changing, rearvarying, or deleting words. The simplest method to achieve this is to include a subordinating conjunction between the claoffers.

Notice that joining the independent clauses by a comma alone is NOT an option. When 2 independent clauses are joined by only a comma, this error is referred to as a comma splice.

The table below demonstprices the four correct options.When two independent clauses appear in a sentence, try to imagine a middle column in which only four possibilities exist to join the 2 clauses:

First independent clause2nd independent clause
SubjectPredicate4 CORRECTOPTIONSSubjectPredicate
The type manstudied hard.(period)His wife read a book.
The kind manstudied hard, and, however, or, for, nor, so, yet(comma plus a coordinating conjunction)his wife read a book.
The kind man studied hard; (semicolon)his wife read a book.
The kind man studied hardwhileafterasbereason . . .(examples of subordinating conjunctions -no comma required)his wife read a book.

Please note aacquire that in the above examples a comma alone is NOT one of the correct choices.

The kind male studied difficult, his wife review a book. (Incorrect)

A comma alone in between 2 independent claoffers creates an incorrect comma splice.

Rundown (Including Related Grammar Rules)

1. An independent clause has one subject/predicate pair and also expresses a complete assumed.

Music renders my life worth living.

SubjectPredicate
Musicrenders my life worth living.

2. A simple sentence is consisted of of only one independent clause:

Music renders my life worth living.

3. A run-on sentence is comprised of two or even more independent claoffers that are not joined appropriately or which need to be made into separate sentences. A run-on sentence is characterized by its grammatical framework, not its length.

Incorrect: My favorite band also is in town they are perdeveloping now.Correct: My favorite band also is in tvery own.They are performing currently.Correct: My favorite band is in town, and also they are performing currently.

4. A comma splice is the incorrect use of a comma to join 2 independent claoffers.

Incorrect: I love classical music, it provides me feel joyful.Correct: I love classic music because it makes me feel joyful.Correct: I love classic music; it renders me feel joyful.

5. A compound sentence consists of 2 or more independent clasupplies that are properly joined by a comma plus a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon:

Music suggests a lot to me, and also specific songs bring wonderful memories to mind.

First independent clauseSecond independent clause
SubjectPredicateComma and coordinating conjunctionSubjectPredicate
Musicimplies a lot to me, andparticular songslug wonderful memories to mind.

Music implies a lot to me; specific songs bring wonderful memories to mind.

First independent clauseSecond independent clause
SubjectPredicateSemicolonSubject Predicate
Musicsuggests a lot to me;certain songslug wonderful memories to mind.

6. A comma plus a coordinating conjunction have the right to affix independent claprovides properly. Tright here are seven coordinating conjunctions (sometimes remembered by the acronym "fanboys"):

for, and, nor, yet, or, yet, so

7. A complicated sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. The dependent clause starts through a subordinating conjunction:

I constantly think of summer whenever they play that song.

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First independent clause2nd independent clause
SubjectPredicateSubordinating conjunctionSubjectPredicate
Ialways think of summerwhenevertheyplay that song.

8. A subordinating conjunction connects a dependent clausage to an independent clause. The dependent clausage cannot stand alone; it needs attachment to an independent clausage in order to express the complete interpretation of the sentence. The complying with are examples of some of the many common subordinating conjunctions:

after, although, as, as if, bereason, prior to, even though, if, in order that, fairly than, considering that, so that, than, that, though, unless, till, once, whenever before, where, wherever, whether, while

For even more indevelopment, please see the complying with TIP Sheets:

Independent and Dependent Clauses: Coordination and SubordinationSentence Type and Purpose