The Cabinet was establimelted in Post II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution to administer a resource of key advisors to the President. Today, the Cabinet contains the Vice President and 15 executive departments. Here"s a primer on the departments, in order of their succession to the Presidency.

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Department of State

Established: The Department of State was originally establiburned by the First Congress of the USA as the Department of Fopower Affairs on July 27, 1789. The name was adjusted to the Department of State less than 2 months later on, as soon as Congress passed an Act to "provide for the safe keeping of the Acts, Records, and Seal of the USA, and for various other purposes."

First Secretary: After spfinishing the previous 5 years as Minister to France, Thomas Jefferboy served under George Washington from 1790 until 1793. Jefferson resigned over a disagreement around whether the UNITED STATE must assistance the French in the French Revolution. He wanted to back the French; Alexander Hamilton sustained the British; and Washington, whose armed forces career started through the French and Indian War, opted for neutrality.

Mission: Develop international policy, breakthrough flexibility, and create a secure and also helpful civilization for the Amerideserve to people and also the global neighborhood.

Notable: Six guys "“ Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren, and James Buchanan "“ offered as Secretary of State prior to becoming President.

Department of the Treasury

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Established: Like the State Department, the Department of the Treasury was formally establiburned by the First Congress of the United States in 1789.

First Secretary: Alexander Hamilton served under Washington from 1789-1795. Throughout that time, he instituted a plan for paying ago the country"s huge war debt, which assisted create the United States" credibility abroad. Hamilton likewise helped establish the First Bank of the United States in 1791. Ironically, he resigned his place to sign up with the New York bar bereason he wasn"t making sufficient money.

Mission: Collect revenue (the IRS is the largest of Treasury"s bureaus), produce money, and also formulate financial plan.

Notable: The Treasury is responsible for creating all of the currency and coinage in the USA. The Treasury structure is illustrated on one side of the $10 bill; Hamilton is on the other.

Department of Defense

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Established: The Department of Defense was founded through the signing of the National Security Act of 1947 by Harry S. Truman. The Act linked the Department of War, which had actually been established in 1789 as one of the original four Cabinet-level positions, and also the Department of the Navy, and also also created the United States Air Force. The brand-new department was initially called the National Military Establishment, but the unfortunate pronunciation of its acronym triggered it to be renamed 2 years later on.

First Secretary: Henry Knox was the first Secretary of War, while James Forrestal, an aviator in World War I, was called the initially Secretary of Defense in 1947. Suffering from major depression, Forrestal committed self-destruction two months after resigning his position in 1949.

Mission: Provide the army forces necessary to deter war and also defend the defense of the USA.

Notable: Donald Rumsfeld is both the youngest and also earliest person to serve as Secretary of Defense. He was 43 once Gerald Ford called him Secretary of Defense in 1975, and also after being re-appointed by George W. Bush in 2001, served till he was 74.

Department of Justice

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Established: In 1870, Ulysses S. Grant signed a bill to create a Department of Justice headed by the Attorney General -- a place that dates ago to the First Congress.

First Attorney General: George Washington appointed Edmund Jennings Randolph, who had formerly served as Governor of Virginia, the initially Attorney General of the United States on September 26, 1789.

Mission: Enpressure the law and protect the interests of the United States according to the law, proccasion and control crime, and also look for simply punishment for criminals.

Notable: The beginning of the FBI deserve to be traced to a force of Special Agents establiburned by Attorney General Charles Bonaparte in 1908.

Department of the Interior

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Established: As its seal shows, the Department of the Interior was establiburned on March 3, 1849, the last day of the 30th Congress, to handle domestic matters.

First Secretary: Zachary Taylor called Thomas Ewing, who had formerly offered as Secretary of the Treasury under William Henry Harrison and John Tyler, the first Secretary of the Interior.

Mission: Protect and also carry out access to our nation"s organic and cultural heritage and also honor our trust responsibilities to Indian Tribes and our commitments to island communities.

Notable: The UNITED STATE Geological Survey and also National Parks Service, bureaus of the DOI, were produced in 1879 and 1916, respectively. The department"s earliest bureau, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, maneras over 66 million acres of land and also was developed in 1824 under the Department of War.

Department of Agriculture

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Established: The Department of Agriculture was establiburned in 1862 by Abraham Lincoln.

First Secretary: The department wasn"t elevated to Cabinet condition till the last year of Grover Cleveland"s initially term in 1889. Norman Jay Coleguy, who got in farming after receiving his regulation level, served as the initially Secretary of Agrisociety for all of 3 weeks under Cleveland also prior to President-elect Benjamin Harrichild appointed his own secretary.

Mission: Formulate plan on farming, food, and organic sources, keep food safety and security, and also combat hunger international.

Notable: Public outrage at the unsanitary conditions at Chicearlier meatpacking plants described in Upton Sinclair"s The Jungle motivated the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.

Department of Commerce

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Established: The Department of Commerce and also Labor was created in 1903, however the Department of Commerce wasn"t establiburned as it is known this particular day till President William H. Taft break-up the department on his last day in office in 1913.

First Secretary: Woodrow Wilchild appointed William C. Redarea, a Congressman from New York, the initially Secretary of Commerce. The initially Secretary of Commerce and Labor was George B. Cortelyou.

Mission: Foster, serve, and promote the nation"s financial advancement and technological development.

Notable: Future President Herbert Hoover was the longest-serving Secretary of Commerce. During his 7+ years in the place, Hoover broadened the government"s "Own Your Own Home" campaign, which supported residence ownership among the nation"s thriving workforce.

Department of Labor

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Established: The Department of Labor was a bureau within the Department of Commerce and also Labor until the previously mentioned separation of that department in 1913.

First Secretary: William B. Wilkid was appointed by Woodrow Wilchild (no relation) as the first Secretary of Labor and also assisted the USA mobilize an effective workforce to assistance the troops awide during World War I.

Mission: Ascertain work-related safety, fair pay, and joblessness insurance benefits.

Notable: Frances Perkins, who offered as Secretary of Labor from 1933-1945, was the first female Cabinet-level secretary in U.S. background. The Labor Department"s structure is called after her.

Department of Health and Person Services

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Established: The Department of Health and Person Services was produced in 1980 following the separation of the Department of Health, Education and also Welfare, a Cabinet-level department established by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953.

First Secretary: Oveta Culp Hobby, an initial commanding officer of the Women"s Army Corps, was the initially Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare.

Mission: Protect the health and wellness of all Americans and provide essential humale solutions, especially for those that are leastern able to aid themselves.

Notable: Patricia R. Harris, that was secretary as soon as the department"s name readjusted in 1980 under Jimmy Carter, was the first African-American womale to serve in a Cabinet place.

Department of Housing and also Urban Development

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Established: The Department of Housing and also Urban Advancement Act of 1965, which was signed by Lyndon B. Johnson, created HUD as a Cabinet-level agency.

First Secretary: Robert C. Weaver, a Harvard graduate, ended up being the first African-Amerideserve to to serve in the U.S. Cabinet when Johnson appointed him as the first Secretary of Houtilizing and also Urban Advancement.

Mission: Increase residence ownership, assistance area advancement, and increase accessibility to affordable housing.

Notable: President John F. Kennedy tried to establish a similar department in 1962 with regulation and his recompany powers, but was blocked in both instances by Congress.

Department of Transportation

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Established: The Department of Transportation was establiburned on October 15, 1966, by President Johnkid and consolidated 31 agencies and bureaus.

First Secretary: Under the direction of Alan Stephenchild Boyd, that offered in the place from 1967-1969, the DOT issued the initially nationwide safety and also federal motor automobile requirements.

Mission: Ensure a rapid, safe, effective, obtainable, and convenient transportation device.

Notable: Among the many duties moved to the DOT once it was establimelted was oversight of daylight conserving time.

Department of Energy

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Established: President Carter established the Department of Energy in 1977 to centralize the government"s power policy in the wake of an oil crisis. The DOE was the first enhancement to the Cabinet in 11 years.

First Secretary: James Schlesinger, who served as Secretary of Defense under Ricdifficult Nixon and also was dismissed by Gerald Ford for insubordicountry, was called the initially Secretary of Energy.

Mission: Advance the national, financial, and also energy defense of the United States and also promote scientific and technological development.

Notable: One of the DOE"s first efforts was the advancement of solar research study. Carter remarked in 1978: "Nobody can embargo sunlight. No cartel controls the sun. Its power will certainly not run out. It will certainly not pollute our air or poikid our waters. It is complimentary from stench and smog." Today, the DOE sponsors more basic research study in the physical scientific researches than any type of various other federal firm in the U.S.

Department of Education

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Established: Carter delivered on a 1976 project promise to the National Education Association as soon as he signed a bill developing the Department of Education as the 13th Cabinet-level department in 1979. The Office of Education was previously within the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

First Secretary: Shirley Hufstedler, who attfinished Stanford Law School and was among President Ford"s candidays to rearea Justice William O. Douglas on the Supreme Court, was called the first Secretary of Education after she offered as Judge of the UNITED STATE Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

Mission: Foster excellence and equal access by establishing policies on federal financial help for education and learning, distribute and monitor financial help, and collect data on the nation"s colleges.

Notable: President Ronald Reagan vowed to remove the Department of Education as a Cabinet-level department and also appointed T.H. Bell as Secretary of Education with that goal in mind, but both men struggresulted in fight for its abolishment without showing up anti-education and learning.

Department of Veterans Affairs

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Established:In 1988, Reagan signed regulation that would establish the Department of Veterans Affairs as a Cabinet-level department the complying with year. The Veterans Administration had been operating because 1930 and the elevation to Cabinet-level status did little bit to change its role.

First Secretary: President-elect George H.W. Bush named Edward J. Derwinski, a World War II veteran, as the initially Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

Mission: Care for the nation"s veterans, issue checks for discapability, education and learning and pensions, and also supervise nationwide cemeteries.

Notable: The Department of Veterans Affairs is the nation"s second-biggest federal company. In fiscal year 2008, the department offered $38.9 billion in disability compensation, fatality compensation, and pension to 3.7 million world.

Department of Homeland Security

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Established: The Office of Homeland Security was establimelted to foster intelligence information sharing in the after-effects of the terrorist strikes of September 11, 2001. DHS came to be a Cabinet-level department under George W. Bush through the passing of the Homeland Security Act in 2002 and merged 22 agencies, consisting of the Customs Service, United States Border Patrol, Coast Guard, and also Secret Service.

First Secretary: Tom Ridge, Governor of Pennsylvania, was the first Director of Homeland Security.

Mission: Secure the country and keep America"s freedoms while preparing to respond to all hazards and tragedies.

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Notable: FEMA, which had operated as an independent agency considering that 1979, was one of the agencies took in by DHS.