Define and explain the self-concept, its influence on indevelopment processing, and also its diversity across social groups.Describe the concepts of self-complexity and also self-principle clarity, and describe exactly how they influence social cognition and also habits.Differentiate the various kinds of self-awareness and self-consciousness.Describe self-awareness, self-discrepancy, and also self-affirmation theories, and their interrelationships.Explore just how we sometimes overestimate the accuracy through which other world view us.

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Some nonhumale animals, consisting of primates, orangutans, and possibly dolphins, have at least a primitive sense of self (Boysen & Himes, 1999). We understand this because of some amazing experiments that have been done via pets. In one research (Gallup, 1970), researchers painted a red dot on the forehead of anesthetized monkeys and also then put the pets in a cage through a mirror. When the chimps woke up and also looked in the mirror, they touched the dot on their faces, not the dot on the faces in the mirror. This activity argues that the chimps understood that they were looking at themselves and also not at various other animals, and also for this reason we have the right to assume that they are able to realize that they exist as individuals. Many other animals, including dogs, cats, and monkeys, never realize that it is themselves they watch in a mirror.

Figure 3.2 A easy test of self-awareness is the capability to acknowledge oneself in a mirror. Humans and primates have the right to pass the test; dogs never before perform.Getting ready by Flausing ( provided under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 license ( Mirror mirror by rromer ( used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 license ( Quite Reflection by Valerie ( offered under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 license ( Toddler in mirror by Samantha Steele ( used under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (

Infants that have comparable red dots painted on their foreheads recognize themselves in a mirror in the very same way that chimps carry out, and also they do this by about 18 months of age (Asendorpf, Warkentin, & Baudonnière, 1996; Povinelli, Landau, & Perilloux, 1996). The child’s knowledge about the self proceeds to construct as the boy grows. By 2 years of age, the infant becomes conscious of his or her gender as a boy or a girl. At age 4, the child’s self-descriptions are likely to be based upon physical attributes, such as hair color, and also by around age six, the child is able to understand standard eactivities and also the principles of traits, being able to make statements such as “I am a nice person” (Harter, 1998).

By the time children are in grade institution, they have learned that they are distinctive people, and also they deserve to think around and analyze their own behavior. They also begin to display awareness of the social situation—they understand that various other people are looking at and judging them the exact same method that they are looking at and judging others (Doherty, 2009).

Advancement and also Characteristics of the Self-Concept

Part of what is emerging in kids as they prosper is the fundamental cognitive part of the self, known as the self-concept. The self-principle is a understanding depiction that contains knowledge about us, consisting of our beliefs around our personality traits, physical features, abilities, worths, objectives, and also functions, as well as the understanding that we exist as individuals. Throughout childhood and also adolescence, the self-principle becomes more abstract and also facility and is arranged into a range of different cognitive elements of the self, recognized as self-schemas. Children have self-schemas about their progression in college, their appearance, their abilities at sporting activities and other tasks, and also many kind of various other facets. In rotate, these self-schemas straight and inform their handling of self-relevant information (Harter, 1999), a lot as we observed schemas in basic affecting our social cognition.

These self-schemas can be stupassed away utilizing the methods that we would certainly usage to research any kind of other schema. One approach is to use neuroimaging to directly research the self in the brain. As you have the right to watch in Figure 3.3, neuroimaging research studies have shown that information about the self is stored in the prefrontal cortex, the same place that other indevelopment around people is stored (Barrios et al., 2008).

Figure 3.3 This number mirrors the locations of the human brain that are well-known to be vital in processing indevelopment around the self. They incorporate generally locations of the prefrontal cortex (areas 1, 2, 4, and also 5). File are from Lieberman (2010)

Another approach to examining the self is to investigate how we address and remember things that relate to the self. Without a doubt, because the self-principle is the most essential of all our schemas, it has actually an extraplain degree of affect on our thoughts, feelings, and also behavior. Have you ever been at a party wright here there was most noise and bustle, and also yet you were surprised to find that you can quickly hear your very own name being discussed in the background? Due to the fact that our own name is such an essential part of our self-idea, and because we value it very, it is very obtainable. We are exceptionally alert for, and react conveniently to, the cite of our own name.

Other study has found that information regarded the self-schema is much better remembered than indevelopment that is unrelated to it, and that indevelopment concerned the self deserve to also be processed extremely conveniently (Liebermale, Jarcho, & Satpute, 2004). In one classical research that demonstrated the prestige of the self-schema, Rogers, Kuiper, and also Kirker (1977) performed an experiment to assess just how college students recalled indevelopment that they had learned under different processing conditions. All the participants were presented via the very same list of 40 adjectives to procedure, yet with the use of random assignment, the participants were offered one of four various sets of instructions about exactly how to procedure the adjectives.

Participants assigned to the structural task condition were asked to judge whether the word was printed in uppersituation or lowersituation letters. Participants in the phonemic task condition were asked whether the word rhymed via another offered word. In the semantic job condition, the participants were asked if the word was a synonym of one more word. And in the self-reference task condition, participants shown whether the offered adjective was or was not true of themselves. After completing the mentioned task, each participant was asked to recall as many adjectives as he or she could remember. Rogers and also his colleagues hypothesized that various types of handling would certainly have actually different results on memory. As you deserve to check out in Figure 3.4, “The Self-Reference Effect,” the students in the self-recommendation job condition redubbed considerably more adjectives than did students in any type of various other condition.

Figure 3.4 The Self-Reference Effect

The chart mirrors the propercent of adjectives that students were able to respeak to under each of four learning conditions. The very same words were recalled substantially much better once they were processed in relation to the self than when they were processed in various other means. Documents from Rogers et al. (1977).

The finding that indevelopment that is processed in partnership to the self is particularly well remembered, recognized as the self-referral effect, is effective evidence that the self-principle helps us organize and also remember information. The following time you are researching, you can try relating the product to your own experiences—the self-reference result argues that doing so will assist you better remember the indevelopment.

The particular content of our self-principle powercompletely affects the method that we procedure information relating to ourselves. But just how can we meacertain that certain content? One means is by making use of self-report tests. One of these is a deceptively easy fill-in-the-blank measure that has actually been widely offered by many scientists to get a photo of the self-principle (Rees & Nicholboy, 1994). All of the 20 items in the meacertain are specifically the very same, yet the perchild is asked to fill in a various response for each statement. This self-report measure, known as the Twenty Statements Test (TST), deserve to disclose a lot about a person because it is designed to meacertain the most accessible—and thus the the majority of important—parts of a person’s self-principle. Try it for yourself, at leastern five times:

I am (please fill in the blank) __________________________________I am (please fill in the blank) __________________________________I am (please fill in the blank) __________________________________I am (please fill in the blank) __________________________________I am (please fill in the blank) __________________________________

Although each perchild has actually a distinctive self-idea, we deserve to determine some qualities that are common throughout the responses given by various people on the measure. Physical characteristics are an essential component of the self-concept, and also they are stated by many kind of human being as soon as they define themselves. If you’ve been pertained to lately that you’ve been obtaining weight, you might compose, “I am overweight.” If you think you’re especially excellent looking (“I am attractive”), or if you think you’re also brief (“I am as well short”), those things can have been reflected in your responses. Our physical characteristics are important to our self-idea because we realize that other world use them to judge us. People often list the physical qualities that make them various from others in either positive or negative ways (“I am blond,” “I am short”), in part because they understand also that these qualities are salient and hence likely to be supplied by others as soon as judging them (McGuire, McGuire, Child, & Fujioka, 1978).

A second element of the self-principle relating to individual features is made up of personality traitsthe certain and also secure personality attributes that describe an individual (“I am friendly,” “I am shy,” “I am persistent”). These individual distinctions are important determinants of actions, and also this facet of the self-idea varies among people.

The remainder of the self-idea shows its even more exterior, social components; for instance, memberships in the social teams that we belengthy to and treatment about. Common responses for this component may incorporate “I am an artist,” “I am Jewish,” and also “I am a mom, sister, daughter.” As we will see later on in this chapter, team memberships create a vital part of the self-concept bereason they provide us via our social identitythe feeling of our self that requires our memberships in social groups.

Although we all specify ourselves in relation to these three broad categories of characteristics—physical, personality, and social – some amazing social differences in the family member prestige of these categories have been displayed in people’s responses to the TST. For instance, Ip and Bond (1995) uncovered that the responses from Eastern participants included substantially more referrals to themselves as residents of social roles (e.g., “I am Joyce’s friend”) or social teams (e.g., “I am a member of the Cheng family”) than those of American participants. Similarly, Markus and Kitayama (1991) reported that Eastern participants were more than twice as likely to include recommendations to various other civilization in their self-concept than did their Western counterparts. This greater emphasis on either exterior and also social facets of the self-principle mirrors the loved one importance that collectivistic and also individualistic cultures area on an interdependence versus independence (Nisbett, 2003).

Interestingly, bicultural people who report acculturation to both collectivist and also individualist cultures display shifts in their self-principle depending on which society they are primed to think around as soon as completing the TST. For instance, Ross, Xun, & Wilchild (2002) found that students born in China but living in Canada reported even more interdependent aspects of themselves on the TST once asked to write their responses in Chinese, as opposed to English. These culturally different responses to the TST are additionally regarded a broader difference in self-concept, through people from individualistic societies regularly describing themselves making use of interior features that emphadimension their uniqueness, compared with those from collectivistic backgrounds that tfinish to anxiety mutual social team memberships and also functions. In turn, this distinction have the right to bring about essential differences in social actions.

One simple yet effective demonstration of cultural distinctions in self-idea affecting social behavior is presented in a study that was conducted by Kim and Markus (1999). In this research, participants were contacted in the waiting location of the San Francisco airport and asked to fill out a short questionnaire for the researcher. The participants were selected according to their cultural background: around one-half of them indicated they were European Americans whose parents were born in the USA, and the various other half suggested they were Eastern Americans whose parents were born in China and who spoke Chinese at house. After completing the questionnaires (which were not used in the information evaluation other than to recognize the cultural backgrounds), participants were asked if they would favor to take a pen via them as a token of appreciation. The experimenter extended his or her hand, which consisted of 5 pens. The pens offered to the participants were either 3 or 4 of one color and one or two of one more shade (the ink in the pens was always black). As shown in Figure 3.5, “Cultural Differences in Desire for Uniqueness,” and also constant through the hypothesized preference for uniqueness in Western, however not Eastern, societies, the European Americans desired to take a pen with the even more unexplained color, whereas the Eastern Amerihave the right to participants wanted one with the even more common shade.

Figure 3.5 Cultural Differences in Desire for Uniqueness

In this research, participants from European Amerihave the right to and also East Oriental societies were asked to select a pen as a token of appreciation for completing a questionnaire. There were either 4 pens of one shade and one of another color, or 3 pens of one color and 2 of another. European Americans were significantly even more likely to select the more uncommon pen shade in both cases. File are from Kim and Markus (1999, Experiment 3).

Cultural differences in self-concept have actually even been found in people’s self-descriptions on social netfunctioning sites. DeAndrea, Shaw, and also Levine (2010) examined individuals’ free-text self-descriptions in the About Me section in their Facebook propapers. Consistent via the researchers’ hypotheses, and via previous research utilizing the TST, Afrihave the right to Amerihave the right to participants had the most the a lot of individually (internally) explained self-principles, and also Eastern Americans had actually the the majority of interdependent (external) self-descriptions, via European Americans in the middle.

As well as indications of social diversity in the content of the self-idea, tright here is likewise evidence of parallel sex diversity between males and females from assorted cultures, through females, on average, offering more external and also social responses to the TST than males (Kashima et al., 1995). Interestingly, these gender differences have actually been uncovered to be even more obvious in individualistic countries than in collectivistic countries (Watkins et al., 1998).

Self-Complexity and also Self-Concept Clarity

As we have viewed, the self-idea is a wealthy and complicated social representation of who we are, encompassing both our interior characteristics and also our social duties. In addition to our thoughts around that we are appropriate now, the self-principle also includes thoughts about our previous self—our experiences, achievements, and failures—and also around our future self—our really hopes, plans, objectives, and also possibilities (Oysermale, Bybee, Terry, & Hart-Johnson, 2004). The multidimensional nature of our self-concept implies that we have to think about not just each component in isolation, but additionally their interactions via each other and their all at once structure. Two especially necessary structural facets of our self-concept are complexity and also clarity.

Although eincredibly humale being has a complex self-concept, tright here are nevertheless individual differences in self-complexity, the extent to which individuals have actually many kind of different and also fairly independent ways of thinking about themselves (Linville, 1987; Roccas & Brewer, 2002). Some selves are even more complex than others, and also these individual distinctions deserve to be necessary in determining psychological outcomes. Having a complicated self means that we have actually many different methods of thinking about ourselves. For instance, imagine a woguy whose self-idea consists of the social identities of student, girlfrifinish, daughter, psychology student, and also tennis player and that has encountered a wide selection of life experiences. Social psychologists would say that she has actually high self-intricacy. On the various other hand also, a male who perceives himself generally as either a student or as a member of the soccer team and who has had a relatively narrowhead array of life experiences would be said to have low self-intricacy. For those with high self-complexity, the miscellaneous elements of the self are separate, as the positive and negative thoughts about a certain self-element carry out not spill over into thoughts around various other facets.

Research has actually found that compared through world low in self-complexity, those higher in self-intricacy tend to experience more positive outcomes, including better levels of self-esteem (Rafaeli-Mor & Steinberg, 2002), lower levels of stress and anxiety and illness (Kalthoff & Neimeyer, 1993), and also a higher tolerance for frustration (Gramzow, Sedikides, Panter, & Insko, 2000).

The benefits of self-complexity occur because the various domain names of the self assist to buffer us against negative events and also reap the positive events that we experience. For world low in self-complexity, negative outcomes in relation to one facet of the self tfinish to have actually a large impact on their self-esteem. For instance, if the just point that Maria cares around is obtaining into medical school, she might be devadeclared if she stops working to make it. On the other hand, Marty, that is likewise passionate about medical college but who has an extra complicated self-principle, might be much better able to adjust to such a blow by turning to other interests.

Although having actually high self-intricacy seems advantageous as a whole, it does not seem to assist everyone equally in their response to all occasions (Rafaeli-Mor & Steinberg, 2002). People via high self-intricacy seem to react more positively to the excellent things that occur to them but not necessarily less negatively to the poor points. And the positive results of self-complexity are stronger for people who have actually various other positive facets of the self also. This buffering impact is more powerful for human being via high self-esteem, whose self-intricacy entails positive quite than negative characteristics (Koch & Shepperd, 2004), and also for world who feel that they have actually control over their outcomes (McConnell et al., 2005).

Just as we may differ in the intricacy of our self-principle, so we may likewise differ in its clarity. Self-principle clarity is the degree to which one’s self-principle is plainly and continuously defined (Campbell, 1990). Theoretically, the ideas of intricacy and clarity are independent of each other—a perboy might have either a more or less complex self-principle that is either well characterized and constant, or ill identified and incontinuous. However before, in reality, they each have actually similar relationships to many kind of indices of health.

For example, as has been discovered with self-complexity, higher self-idea clarity is positively pertained to self-esteem (Campbell et al., 1996). Why could this be? Perhaps world via higher self-esteem tend to have an extra well-defined and steady see of their positive qualities, whereas those via reduced self-esteem show even more inconsistency and instability in their self-idea, which is then even more delicate to being negatively affected by complicated instances. Consistent with this assertion, self-idea clarity shows up to mediate the partnership between anxiety and also well-being (Ritchie et al., 2011).

Also, having a clear and secure check out of ourselves can assist us in our relationships. Lewandowski, Nardine, and Raines (2010) uncovered a positive correlation in between clarity and also connection satisfactivity, and a significant boost in reported satisfactivity complying with an speculative manipulation of participants’ self-concept clarity. Greater clarity may promote partnership satisfaction in a variety of methods. As Lewandowski and colleagues (2010) argue, as soon as we have a clear self-principle, we might be much better able to continuously communicate that we are and also what we want to our partner, which will promote greater knowledge and also satisfactivity. Also, maybe as soon as we feel clearer about who we are, then we feel much less of a threat to our self-principle and also autonomy once we uncover ourselves having to make comguarantees in our cshed relationships.

Thinking ago to the social differences we discussed earlier in this area in the conmessage of people’s self-ideas, it could be that self-concept clarity is mostly higher in people from individualistic societies, as their self-principle is based even more on inner features that are hosted to be steady across instances, than on external social facets of the self that might be even more changeable. This is indeed what the research study suggests. Not only do members of more collectivistic societies tfinish to have actually reduced self-principle clarity, that clarity is additionally much less strongly pertained to their self-esteem compared with those from even more individualistic cultures (Campbell et al., 1996). As we shall view once our attention transforms to perceiving others in Chapter 5, our cultural background not only affects the clarity and consistency of exactly how we check out ourselves, but additionally exactly how continuously we view other human being and also their actions.


Like any various other schema, the self-principle have the right to vary in its present cognitive accessibility. Self-awareness describes the level to which we are presently solving our attention on our own self-concept. When our self-idea becomes very easily accessible bereason of our involves around being oboffered and perhaps judged by others, we endure the publicly induced self-awareness known as self-consciousness (Duval & Wicklund, 1972; Rochat, 2009).

Perhaps you have the right to remember times as soon as your self-awareness was increased and also you became self-conscious—for circumstances, as soon as you were giving a presentation and also you were maybe paintotally aware that everyone was looking at you, or when you did somepoint in public that embarrassed you. Emotions such as anxiety and also embarrassment happen in huge part bereason the self-concept becomes extremely easily accessible, and they serve as a signal to monitor and possibly adjust our habits.

Not all elements of our self-concept are equally obtainable at all times, and also these irreversible differences in the ease of access of the various self-schemas help create individual differences in regards to, for circumstances, our existing concerns and also interests. You may know some world for whom the physical appearance component of the self-idea is extremely available. They examine their hair eextremely time they check out a mirror, worry whether their apparel are making them look excellent, and also perform most shopping—for themselves, of course. Other human being are more concentrated on their social team memberships—they tfinish to think around things in regards to their duty as Muslims or Christians, for example, or as members of the local tennis or soccer team.

In addition to variation in permanent ease of access, the self and its miscellaneous components might likewise be made temporarily even more accessible with priming. We come to be more self-conscious when we are in front of a mirror, once a TV electronic camera is focused on us, as soon as we are speaking in front of an audience, or once we are listening to our own tape-recorded voice (Kernis & Grannemann, 1988). When the expertise had in the self-schema becomes more available, it also becomes more most likely to be supplied in indevelopment handling and also to influence our behavior.

Beaguy, Klentz, Diener, and Svanum (1979) conducted a area experiment to view if self-awareness would certainly affect children’s honesty. The researchers expected that many youngsters perceived stealing as wrong however that they would be even more most likely to act on this belief once they were even more self-conscious. They conducted this experiment on Halloween in residences within the city of Seattle, Washington. At certain dwellings, children who were trick-or-treating were greeted by one of the experimenters, shown a huge bowl of candy, and were told to take only one item each. The researchers unobtrusively watched each child to watch just how many kind of pieces he or she actually took. In some of the houses tright here was a huge mirror behind the candy bowl; in other homes, tbelow was no mirror. Out of the 363 kids that were observed in the examine, 19% disobeyed instructions and took more than one piece of candy. However, the children that were in front of a mirror were substantially much less most likely to steal (14.4%) than were those who did not see a mirror (28.5%).

These outcomes indicate that the mirror triggered the children’s self-awareness, which reminded them of their idea around the prestige of being hocolony. Other research study has presented that being self-conscious has actually an effective influence on other behaviors also. For circumstances, world are even more likely to remain on a diet, eat better food, and also act more ethically all at once once they are self-mindful (Baumeister, Zell, & Tice, 2007; Heatherton, Polivy, Herman, & Baumeister, 1993). What this implies is that as soon as you are trying to stick to a diet, examine harder, or engage in various other hard habits, you should attempt to emphasis on yourself and also the prominence of the goals you have actually collection.

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Social psychologists are interested in studying self-awareness bereason it has such a crucial influence on behavior. People become even more most likely to violate acceptable, mainstream social norms once, for instance, they put on a Halloween mask or connect in various other habits that hide their identities. For example, the members of the militant White supremacist organization the Ku Klux Klan wear white robes and hats when they satisfy and also as soon as they connect in their racist actions. And when people are in large crowds, such as in a mass demonstration or a riot, they might end up being so much a component of the team that they experience deindividuationthe loss of individual self-awareness and also individual accountcapability in groups (Festinger, Pepitone, & Newcomb, 1952; Zimbardo, 1969) and come to be even more attuned to themselves as group members and to the specific social standards of the particular case (Reicher & Stott, 2011).

Figure 3.6 Instances of situations that may create deindividuation include wearing uniforms that hide the self and also alcohol intoxication.08KKKfamilyPortrait by Image Editor (