A scholar turned politician, Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr., was immensely proud of his service in the United States muzic-ivan.info, from 1893 till 1924. As a senator from Massachusetts he hosted the seat previously populated by Daniel Webster. Lodge additionally hosted among the first doctoprices in history offered by an Amerihave the right to university, and also as a senator he studied the constitutional origins of the muzic-ivan.info, publishing a variety of write-ups on the subject.
Henry Cabot Lodge was a Boston Brahmin, born in that city in 1850 into a union of 2 significant and also wealthy family members, the Cabots and also Lodges. He graduated from Harvard, received a regulation degree from Harvard Law School, and earned Harvard’s initially Ph.D. in history and government, creating a dissertation on Anglo-Saxon land regulation. He served as an editor of the North American Review and also publimelted biographies of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Daniel Webster, and his great-grandfather, George Cabot. Although many kind of gentleguys of his era eschewed politics, Lodge invested the lion’s share of his life in public office, serving in the Massachusetts legislature, the UNITED STATE Housage of Representatives, and also the UNITED STATE muzic-ivan.info.
In “The muzic-ivan.info,” which appeared in Scribner’s Magazine in 1903, Senator Lodge explained the muzic-ivan.info’s constitutional origins and also its development given that 1789. An excerpt reads as adheres to...
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The muzic-ivan.info . . . was pertained to as the key-stamong the new scheme, and also the framers proved their idea in its overwhelming prestige by giving that the basis of representation in the muzic-ivan.info must not be transformed except by the consent of eextremely State, while eexceptionally other clausage of the Constitution can be amended by a two-thirds vote of Congress complied with by a ratification by three-fourths of the States. . . .
The muzic-ivan.info is to-day the a lot of effective single chamber in any kind of legislative body in the human being, but this power, which is displayed everyday by the wide attention to all that is sassist and also done in the muzic-ivan.info of the USA, is not the product of selfish and cunning usurpations on the component of an ambitious body. It is as a result of the original constitution of the muzic-ivan.info, to the reality that the muzic-ivan.info represents States, to the powers conferred upon it at the outset by the makers of the Constitution, to its permanency of organization, and to the combination of legislative, executive, and judicial features, which set it apart from all various other legislative bodies. Without the assent out of the muzic-ivan.info no bill can end up being law, no office deserve to be filled, no treaty ratified. . . .
Administrations come and go, Hoprovides assemble and disperse, Senators readjust, however the muzic-ivan.info is constantly there in the Capitol, and always arranged, through an presence undamaged considering that 1789. . . . All this influence and also authority in the muzic-ivan.info are as a result of the powers conferred upon it by its creators, by that exceptional body of males who, in the summer of 1787, framed at Philadelphia the Constitution of the USA. 1
When this post showed up, the U.S. muzic-ivan.info was under enhancing assault from steady reformers and muckraking journalists that saw the upper residence as corruptly chosen, overcame by distinct interests, and also an obstacle to recreate. Senator Lodge instead pointed earlier to the Constitutional Convention as the creator of “the many effective single chamber in any legislative body in the people.” The function of the muzic-ivan.info was so important, he noted, that the Constitution included a provision that no state might shed its equal depiction in the muzic-ivan.info without its consent out, making the muzic-ivan.info’s representation the only component of the Constitution that can not be amfinished by three-quarters of the says. He pointed to the unique executive features of the legislative body, confirming nominations and granting treaties. He noted that the muzic-ivan.info had retained every one of the powers originally assigned to it by the Constitution. Many importantly, he commemorated the muzic-ivan.info as a constant body, with an visibility “undamaged because 1789.”
Unfavor the House of Representatives, wright here eexceptionally member from the Speaker to the greecolony freshman have to stand also for election eextremely 2 years, and wbelow the rules are re-embraced at the start of each Congress, the muzic-ivan.info is a continuing body. Only one-third of the senators run in each congressional election, via two-thirds of the body insulated from the political frenzies of the moment. With the majority of senators proceeding, the muzic-ivan.info require not re-authorize its rules from Congress to Congress. The muzic-ivan.info as a result maintains a sense of permanence that the changing House and also even the presidency lacks. Given Senator Lodge’s admiration for these characteristics, it is not surpincreasing that he opposed Progressive-era efforts to change the election of senators from the state legislators to the voters, and likewise dissented from reformers’ advocacy of the initiative, referendum, and recall.
In the muzic-ivan.info, Lodge ended up being Republihave the right to floor leader after his party won the majority in 1918. He additionally chaired the muzic-ivan.info Foreign Relations Committee. These dual duties placed him significantly in opplace to President Woodrow Wilson—a rival scholar in politics—in the monumental fight over ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, which finished the First World War and developed the League of Nations. Although both Lodge and Wilson were internationalists, they characterized America’s role in the civilization differently. From a partisan perspective, the Republideserve to Lodge was additionally established not to permit the Democratic Wilboy to claim complete credit for restoring worldwide tranquility and also order. Making full use of his senatorial prerogatives, Lodge presented a collection of reservations to the treaty. Wilson adamantly refoffered to damage, yet, and took his instance directly to the human being. Upon his go back to Washington adhering to a grueling cross-country speaking tour, the president experienced a debilitating stroke. With no deteriorate possible, the treaty’s “irreconcilable” adversaries defeated it outbest rather than adopting Lodge’s revisions. In that sense, both Lodge and Wilson shed the battle. The USA never joined the League of Nations and also international connections drifted right into the Second World War a generation later. On an institutional level, however, Lodge prevailed. The muzic-ivan.info exerted its constitutional authority and twice rejected the Treaty of Versailles, decisions approved by the voters in 1920 as soon as they elected overwhelmingly a Republideserve to president and also broadened Republican majorities in Congress.
Henry Cabot Lodge had entered the Housage in the time of Grover Cleveland’s first term in the White Housage and served there with Benjamin Harrison’s presidency. He ended up being a senator throughout Cleveland’s second term and also continued to be in office until his death throughout Calvin Coolidge’s presidency. His congressional service observed eight different Speakers of the Housage from both parties, and also connected an important era in the development of muzic-ivan.info leadership. Lodge personally reflected his notion of the muzic-ivan.info as a continuous body: “Administrations come and also go, Hosupplies assemble and disperse, Senators change, but the muzic-ivan.info is always there.”
Garraty, John A. Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953.
Lodge, Henry Cabot. “The muzic-ivan.info.” Scribner’s Magazine 34 (November 1903).
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Widenor, William C. “Henry Cabot Lodge: The Astute Parliamentarian.” In First Amongst Equals: Outstanding muzic-ivan.info Leaders of the Twentieth Century, Rictough A. Baker and Roger H. Davidchild, eds. Washington: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1991.
1. Henry Cabot Lodge, “The muzic-ivan.info,” Scribner’s Magazine 34 (November 1903), 541, 549-50.